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VOLUME 33 NUMBER 4 DECEMBER 1980
Editor's Page . . . .... .160
Florida Anthropologist Interview with Calvin
Jones . . . . 161
A Fort Walton Campsite (8Ja201) at the Scholz
Steam Plant Parking Lot Jackson County,
by David S. Brose and Duncan C. Wilkie. 172
The Development of Some Aboriginal Pottery of
the Central Peninsular Gulf Coast of
by George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy. 207
Reviewed by John W. Griffin. . ... 226
Request for Information . . ... .230
This issue marks the completion of my first year as editor of The
Florida Anthropologist. It has not been a breeze. It has required a
great deal of work and time, but I have learned from the experience and
I have enjoyed the challenge. My job would have been considerably more
difficult if it were not for the support and diligent work by members
of the editorial board, the advice of several friends, the work done by
Jeane and Irving Eyster and Jo Southard towards preparing envelopes and
labels for each quarterly issue, and finally, the professional typing and
editing abilities of Esther Nedelman.
The year 1980 has produced a wide variety of publications concerning
Florida anthropology and archaeology, and I will quickly review them for
the benefit of the reader as follows: John Walthall's Prehistoric Indians
of the Southeast: Archaeology of the Alabama and the Middle South is a
hardback published by University of Alabama Press. I am unaware of the
price, but the book provides an informative discussion of prehistory for
that region and will be a welcome edition to the library of student or
Available from the West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences
is Vol. 19, June, 1980, entitled the Sapelo Paper: Researches in the
History and Prehistory of Sapelo Island, Georgia. This 114-page volume,
edited by Daniel P. Juengst, is available for $4.00 from West Georgia
College, Carrollton, Georgia, 30117.
Bulletins 17 and 23 of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference
were released last year as a single publication. Edited by Dr. J. Milanich
the volume is available from the editor by writing to the Florida State
Museum in Gainesville.
The Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties of Florida's Division
of Archives, History, and Records Management has published Bulletin No. 6
which features a series of five articles on the underwater archaeological
research at the Venice site, an article on the Coe's Landing Site, and
an article on Fort Alabama. This volume is available from the FDAHRM in
Florida Maritime Heritage, a volume containing papers presented at
the First Maritime Heritage Conference, held in Tampa, Florida, on March
22-23, 1980, is available for $5.00 from the Florida State Museum, Universi
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 in care of the editor, Dr. Barbara
A. Purdy. The book contains articles on archaeology, history, and pre-
servation relative to Florida's maritime heritage.
The Florida Journal of Anthropology is a biannual publication of the
Florida Anthropology Student Association of the University of Florida. Thi
publication is developing into a balanced forum for articles on all element
of anthropology. Edited by Margaret Overbey McMicheal, a subscription to
the journal is available for $7.00 for individuals and $10.00 for institute
Subscribe by writing to the Department of Anthropology, 1350 GPA, Universit:
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST INTERVIEW WITH CALVIN JONES
On November 10, 1980, Florida
Anthropologist editor, Robert Carr, a"
conducted an interview with Calvin
Jones at Florida's Division of
Archives, History, and Records
Management in Tallahassee. This
interview is divided into two
parts: Part I presented here
concentrates on Mr. Jones' work
on Spanish missions and his
excavations at the Lake Jackson
Mounds; Part II on his excava-
tions of an Archaic cemetery in
Figure 1. Calvin Jones
Editor: Calvin, when and where were you born?
Jones: I was born in Gladewater, Texas in 1938.
Editor: How long have you been an archeologist?
Jones,: Well, I've been interested in archeology since I was about
12 years old, and did much of my earliest work as an amateur
in an area of Eastern Texas in the area between Dallas and
Shrevesport, Louisiana. With the help of relatives in 1958,
I established the Caddo Indian Museum, a small non-profit
museum still in operation in Longview, Texas.
Editor: How long have you been a professional archeologist?
Jones: I suppose as far as continuous professional employment, it's
been about 13 years, and I've spent that time in Florida.
However, I would have never been a professional if I hadn't
been an amateur first.
Editor: Previous to your Florida work, what other work have you done?
Jones: I did some excavations in Texas and also worked in Oklahoma,
and I worked for the National Park Service for one summer in
Editor: What was your first major archeological project when you came
Jones: It was my research of Spanish missions in North Florida. My
interest in the missions began in Texas where Spanish mission
activity had also occurred, but at a slightly later date, around
the 1690's in the eastern part of Texas, which, incidentally,
is country very similar to the northern part of Florida. One
of the reasons I was enticed to come here was the chance to
look into the Spanish effort as it occurred in Florida. There
was a chain of missions from St. Augustine westward across the
state, but very few mission sites had been located. I believe
only three had ever been excavated in the upland portion of
Editor: How many of the mission sites have you located?
Jones: Well, I found only nine of the 33 Florida missions, but these
nine were primarily the only ones I was looking for. These
were in Appalache Province. This also includes a couple of
Timucua missions. I haven't had any chance to work on this
mission.project in the past five years.
Editor: How many of these missions did you actually excavate?
Jones: I've done some excavation work in several of them; specifically
at San Damian de Excambe, San Perdo de Patali, San Pablo de
Patalio in Leon County; San Joseph de Ocuya, San Juan de Aspalaga
San Lorenzo de Iuitachuco, San Miguel de Asile in Jefferson
County; and, San Pedro de Pothohiriva in Madison County.
Editor: Of the nine missions that you located are any of these preserved?
Jones: Well, yes, fortunately, one of them is--Escambe.
Editor: What about the others? Have they been destroyed?
Jones: Fortunately most of the others are still unthreatened at this
time. They occur on plantations or private property, but the
Escambe mission is now under state ownership and has been since
1970. However, we haven't had much effort in getting it develop,
as a state park.
Editor: How long was the Spanish mission period in Florida?
Jones: It depends on where you start. If you start in St. Augustine,
its 1565. As one traces the spread westward in 1600 in the
Timucua territory or as late as 1633, when it began moving into
the Appalache Province. This activity all took place during
the First Spanish Period in Florida. Generally, in my area
of research the period begins in 1633 and ends 1704-1706.
Editor: What was the major event that ended that period?
Jones: Colonel James Moore representing the English attempted to rid
Florida of the Spanish by military conquest. He managed to
burn and scatter many of the mission settlements. These
settlements were overgrown with trees soon afterward; hence,
most of these locations became lost because there were no
remaining surface ruins to mark their locations. Difficulty
in relocating these sites was also compounded by the fact that
no maps have been found which accurately show their locations.
I have found only one authentic seventeenth century Spanish
map that pertains to inland Florida, and in this example the
map is of very small scale, with dots representing mission
locations, and there are no cartographical reference points
or distances shown. Moore burned important Spanish maps and
documents during his raids beginning with his attack on St.
Augustine in 1702, and no other copies of useful Spanish maps
pertaining to the area have since been found. The discovery
and confirmation of one of these inland mission sites is
therefore primarily an archeological task rather than an
Editor: After investigating nine different missions, what kind of
site model were you able to construct for mission sites in
the Appalache Province?
Jones: I've learned that you can depend upon the nature of the repeti-
tive character of man's behavior to help to locate sites.
Assuming that missions were similar during the same period, I
then assumed they were similar in terms of their location,
their construction and role in the communities. The model I
found as a result of that is that most of the missions that
I've looked at are all similar in terms of size, the number of
buildings present, and also, the topographical and physiographic
features were similar in terms of the location chosen for each
of the missions.
Editor: Could you say specifically what that model is?
Jones: This model is for inland areas of northern Florida. Mission
sites generally are located in terrain above 100 ft. in elevation.
The natural elevational range in this study area is anywhere from
slightly above sea level up to about 220 ft. But all of the
missions occur generally between 100 and 220 ft. Also, missions
were located near two water sources; either a spring, or stream,
and a sinkhole, or two sinkholes.
Editor: Do you think the elevation chosen was for protection?
Jones: Yes, it probably was for protection since most of them were
located at around 200 ft. in elevation.
Editor: In terms of the format of a Spanish mission, what would be a
Jones: Typical format would, of course, include the church building,
and that generally ranges from about 35 ft. in width to about
70 ft. in length. There's always at least one other building
and that's the convent in which there were rarely, if ever any,
women, the priest, and maybe one Indian helper or so. The
convent would be usually situated on the south side of the
church and have dimensions of 20 x 20 ft. or 20 x 30 ft. Usually
it was a small building.
Editor: How about the cemetery?
Jones: Cemeteries are always also in a very predictable location,
generally to one side of the church. Usually, they are located
on the side that the convent is on and that seems to be because
of the fact that the priest was really the overseer of the
cemetery. Also, he made daily walks near or through the cemetery
apparently, just to keep an eye on it, and keep Indian dogs from
disturbing graves or vandalism from occurring. In terms of this
model, there are some other things about the architecture and
construction that are also very repetitive. Clay was used as
plaster over a wooden framework. The process was called wattle
and daub. That was used in combination with split, hand hewn
board construction. These construction techniques varied from
mission to mission, as to whether the mission buildings were
totally wattle and daub or totally board. I've only found one
that was totally board without the use of wattle and daub. The
rest of them are combinations of constructions--either partly
board construction on the outside connected with wattle and
daub, or mostly wattle and daub with some wood construction.
Editor: Do you anticipate that in the proposed park for the Escambe
Mission that the mission or part of it will be reconstructed?
Jones: Yes, that would be one of the reasons for developing a park. It
would be primarily a historical park with a reconstruction of thi
mission itself and one or two of the four buildings associated
with that particular mission.
Editor: Where is this proposed park?
Jones: It's here in Tallahassee, in the north part of town, about a mil<
southwest of the Lake Jackson Mound Site which is in northwest
Tallahassee. There is one thing I want to say about the Spanish
mission locations. Apparently the primary factor in terms of
where the missions were located, apart from those items pre-
viously considered, is that the site be along the Spanish Trail
in proximity to the twelve or more existing Appalache villages
mentioned in 1633 to have been in Appalache Province.
Editor: Was there an average distance from the village that the mission
Jones: Apparently it was within at least of a mile of the village,
but we must get into the problem of understanding what an
Appalache village was in terms of settlement system. Apparently
some of the villages were regularly organized with streets and
rows of Indian huts. Whereas others fit a description given
by De Soto that a village was made up of a community of scattered
houses. He described these huts as being scattered within seeing
distance from one another, amongst the oaks.
Editor: Are any of these villages palisaded?
Jones: No evidence of palisades has been found. There's no mention in
the documents of there being palisades in the Appalache Province.
However, in the Timicua Province it's a different situation.
Editor: You put out several publications on your Spanish Mission work
that appeared through some of the Archives' publications. Isn't
Jones: Yes, they're available to the public here at Archives and History
in our Bulletin series.
Lake Jackson Mounds
Editor: Why is Lake Jackson a significant site?
Jones: It is a significant site because of the fact that it is in part
a ceremonial site, of which there are not many in the Tallahassee
Red Hills. There are only 6 or 7 or so mound sites of any period
within the two county area of Leon and Jefferson counties.
Editor: How many mounds are there at the Lake Jackson site?
Jones: There are 7 mounds there and this is what makes it a significant
ceremonial site. There are seven large mounds, of which six of
these are platform types (see Fig. 2). These mounds are arranged
in a situation where it is evident that they're all part of the
ceremonial community that existed at one single time period.
Editor: What time period is represented by these mounds?
Jones: Well, that's the Ft. Walton cultural time period, which new
carbon dates seem to indicate lasted in this area from about
1100-1200 A.D. to about 1500 A.D.
Editor: Hasn't the Lake Jackson site been a State Park for a number of
Jones: Unfortunately, only 2 of the 7 mounds are all that's included
in the State Park. The other mounds are on private property next
to the State Park. The mound I excavated was on private property.
- --- State Park Boundary
1966 Water Line
Editor: How did you get involved with having the opportunity to excavate
one of these privately owned mounds?
Jones: Well, this situation occurred as a result of a friend calling me
after finding an object in his front yard after he bought a new
residence. The object he found was a small copper axe head and
I went to look at the object and investigated the man's front
yard. It was determined that the yard had been filled with dirt
that had been brought in from a mound next to Lake Jackson. I
then determined that the man who sold the fill was the owner of
the other Lake Jackson mounds. I succeeded in talking to the
owner in behalf of the State, and he allowed me to work on his
private property to finish excavating the mound in which he had
begun to sell dirt. This mound is known as Mound 3, according
to Willey's 1949 publication.
Editor: How long did you work at the site?
Jones: Unfortunately, only about three months between November, 1975,
through February, 1976. I say "unfortunately" because this
mound was a flat top truncated mound and was about 16 ft. high
and 175 ft. in length. You can imagine that 3 months is not
much time to take a mound of that magnitude apart.
Editor: How many people worked with you on that project?
Jones: Well, two or three people and myself, but mostly just me because
of the fact that the owner did not want any publicity about that
site. He didn't want any publicity nor a lot of people out there
in his way. And-I say, "in his way" because he has a mechanics
shop, he's in the earth moving business, he has a lot of trucks
and he didn't want a lot of people running around, driving in
and out, nor did he want a lot of people to know about it because
of publicity and that might develop about the fact that he was in
the process of destroying this mound, when we became involved.
Editor: I think it might be important for the readers to know that what
you are discussing is a salvage situation of a mound being des-
troyed in which you were in a position to respond. You were
able to get people to go there and you were at least able to do
three months worth of work. It that situation normal, in terms
of the ability of the Division of Archives ana History to respond
to that kind of emergency?
Jones: I would have to say it's not normal because of the fact that our
time is so taken with administering cultural resources that we
often don't have time to follow up inquiries or reports that are
made about sites being destroyed. We frequently are able to make
a phone call or two to try to preliminarily assess what is hap-
pening to a site, but we have less means in terms of funding or
people to respond by actually excavating a site. The reason I
was able to handle Lake Jackson was the fact that it was in our
back door, right here in Tallahassee.
Editor: What did you find during your excavations?
Jones: I found things which made the Lake Jackson site look a little
better than it had in the past. Previous work that had been
done at Lake Jackson by Willey, Fairbanks, John Griffin, and
Hale Smith, and from our agency, Frank Fryman and Dan Penton,
had been concentrated in areas adjacent to the mounds, pri-
marily village areas. From that previous bulk of work, mostly
village material was found; pot sherds and faunal remains and
so forth. Whereas in excavating Mound 3 a representation of the
Southern Cult of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex in asso-
ciation with 23 human burials were recovered. We recovered
ceremonial items of copper, lead, mica, steatite, limestone,
shell, and pearls.
Editor: Do you think these 23 people were of any particular status?
Jones: Yes, they were obviously of high social status. In addition
to the twenty-three burials we recovered,one suspect and maybe
4 or 5 others were removed along with the axe initially found
in the man's front yard. Something less than 30 burials pro-
bably were contained in this mound--which is not many burials
for a mound this size. These burials were associated with
twelve structural floors--floors which were made of the local
red clay. All the buildings were made of a perishable super-
structure and were either square or rectangular; wall studs
were single wooden posts and had either thatched or grass
coverings, all perishable material, no wattle and daub. Six
of these floors had the burials associated with them, and
the fact that one or two people had been buried through these
floors indicated that these individuals were important persons
associated with the buildings and activities that were asso-
ciated with this mound. All the burials were single burials
in which split logs had been placed perpendicular to the body
as a covering over the burials. Several of these had caved
in through time due to the weight of the mound that was later
constructed above them and because of the wood rotting. The
bones were in such a poor state of preservation or crushed so
that it was impossible to determine information on sex and
age on most of them. Only a few of the skeletons were pre-
served well enough to be identifiable and they were males, the
youngest about 12 or 13 years old.
Editor: Were you able to determine any radiocarbon dates for these
Jones: Yes, we have. They indicated dates from about 1200 A.D. to
about 1500 A.D. Our problem is in dating the beginning of
Mound 3 because, unfortunately, we have a later date that falls
beneath a couple of early dates in the mound, so we are unclear
now as to when this mound was actually first constructed.
Editor: What material were you dating?
Jones: We were dating mostly the split wood log fragments from over
the burials that formed the tombs and some of the structural
posts that we found beneath the mound. There was a village or
midden area under the mound indicating the site had been
occupied prior to the mound construction, and in this same
location we found a couple of long wall-trenches 40 to 50 ft.
long that either would go with the palisade or with a large
rectangular structure. Due to time limitations we were not
able to trace out the wall trenches beyond about 50 ft. in
Editor: What was the terminal date of the mound?
Jones: The terminal date of the mound is 1450 70, which conveniently
places it 20 years prior to De Soto's arrival in the Tallahassee
Editor: Can you describe the copper artifacts that you found?
Jones: The copper was used at or near the beginning of the time of
mound construction, and became more abundant as structures were
added to the mound or as time passed. The artifacts include
five decorative "birdmen" breastplates (see cover), other copper
plates that may be parts of headdresses, spangles, "plume"
fragments, ear dangles, arrowhead shaped pendants, circular
shields, and copper axes. One of these breastplates is appar-
ently the largest ever recovered in the United States. The
copper increased in frequency in latter times and became most
abundant with the last grouping of burials that were entered
into the mound ca. 1450 A.D.
Editor: Has any spectographic analysis been done to determine the
Jones: Yes, the Physics Dept. at Florida State University has worked
with our laboratory on several samples, but the Physics Dept.
is not clear yet as to where the copper came from based upon
the quantities and identities of trace elements in the copper.
Sharon Goad at the University of Georgia did some work in copper
in terms of spectographic analysis which only looks for 7 or 8
of the major trace elements, the heavier trace elements in copper,
and statisticians are not convinced that archeologically that's
adequate to show where the copper came from. They say you need
to identify 12 or more trace elements.
Editor: Where do you think they're from?
Jones: Well, I wish I could say. Naturally, I think that they were
from north of Tallahassee maybe from north Georgia or from as
far north as the Great Lakes. This interpretation is based upon
some other items that appear to be from the north. That doesn't
mean these people didn't go in all directions in terms of their
trade routes. I would guess that marine shells and salt were the
main commodities traded inland. The mica we can definitely
identify from being from just north of Macon. Also, there was
a large steatite ceremonial pipe that probably came from, no
doubt, near Atlanta or the mountains of North Georgia. So we
have these three things that apparently came from the north.
Based on that, I would have to say the copper came from a
northern route. Someone has criticized us for not looking at
Mesoamerican copper associations. The problem is that we don't
have any good samples from Mesoamerica to compare with. They're
hard to obtain. Based upon the similarities of some of the
decorative motifs, in particular one plate, one wonders if there'
not a possible connection with Mesoamerica.
Editor: Why do you think that copper was such an important trade item?
Jones: I think they were fascinated with copper because of its color
and the fact that it was very brilliant in the sunlight. We
have to realize that this copper is associated primarily with
embossed bird motifs, and in some cases, the plates have been
made in bird shapes. The birds represented are debatable. Most
everybody has ruled out buzzards. However, there is still some
argument as to whether we're dealing with hawks or eagles. I
don't know, but at any rate, I think that the brilliancy of this
metal and its workability made it a very desirable item. Prob-
ably, these copper plates were worn only on special occasions
either in ceremonial usage or in warfare. I personally think
that the bird images themselves on plates were probably made out
of copper because of the fact that it's sun colored. It's
yellow and there may be some affinity here with the belief that
it contains some of the actual power of the sun entrapped into
tangible form. This is getting mystical beyond archeological
data, but it doesn't hurt to speculate.
Editor: What other items did you find of interest?
Jones: We found that there were only two bowls buried with the entire
group of burials. One was a crushed pottery bowl of Lake Jackson
Plain buried beneath an individual which was located near the
east edge of the mound, away from the high status burial area,
and a second bowl carved from limestone came from one of the
high status burials. This near absence of pots just reinforces
the fact that these individuals were a select group buried
mainly with their full ceremonial regalia. In one case an
individual was buried with what appeared to be a conch bead
fringed robe or cloak.
Editor: In what way do you think your discoveries have altered our
understanding.of the Lake Jackson Mounds?
Jones: Lake Jackson is now considered by Brain, Brown, and others to
be along with Moundville, Spiro, and Ethowah; one of the four
major cult centers in the southeast.
Editor: When can the archeological community expect to see the published
reports) on your work at the Lake Jackson Mounds?
Jones: I hope to have a preliminary report done on this site early in
1981. There are several opportunities for its publication, so
I'm not sure what publication will carry it.
Boyd, Mark F.'
1948 Enumeration of Florida Spanish Missions in 1675. Florida
Historical Quarterly, 27:181-188.
Boyd, Mark F., H. G. Smith, and J. W. Griffin
1951 Here They Once Stood--The Tragic End of the Apalachee
Missions. The University of Florida Press, Gainesville.
Fryman, F. G., Jr.
1971 Tallahassee's Prehistoric Political Center. Archives
& History News, 2(3):2-4.
Griffin, John W.
1950 Test Excavations at the Lake Jackson Site. American
Jones, B. Calvin
1970 Missions Reveal State's Spanish-Indian Heritage.
Archives & History News, 1(2):13,3.
1970 17th Century Spanish Mission Cemetery is Discovered
Near Tallahassee. Archives & History News, 1(4):1-2.
1971 State Archaeologists Unearth Spanish Mission Ruins.
Archives & History News, 2(4):2.
1972 Colonel James Moore and the Destruction of the Apalachee
Missions in 1704. Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties
Bulletin No. 2, 25-33.
1972 Spanish Mission Sites Located and Test Excavated. Archives
& History News, 3(6):1-2.
1973 A Semi-Subterranean Structure at Mission San Joseph de
Ocuya, Jefferson County, Florida. Bureau of Historic
Sites and Properties, Bulletin No, 3, 1-50.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, No. 113.
Willey, Gordon R. and R. B. Woodbury
1942 A Chronological Outline of the Northwest Florida Coast.
American Antiquity, 7(3):253-254.
Part II of this interview will be in the March, 1981 issue of
The Florida Anthropologist.
A FORT WALTON CAMPSITE (8Ja201)
AT THE SCHOLZ STEAM PLANT PARKING LOT
JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA
David S. Brose and Duncan C. Wilkie
During the month of January, 1975, an archaeological field crew
composed of students from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland,
Ohio, was engaged in archaeological excavations along the western bank
of the Apalachicola River in northwestern Florida. The main field work,
directed by David Brose, of The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, was
at the Curlee Site, an early Fort Walton mound and village (8Ja7) just
south of the Route 90 bridge and directly across the river from the
Chattahoochee Landing site (8Gd4) (Moore 1903; Willey 1949; Bullen 1958).
In conjunction with this work, a crew under the junior author's direction
performed survey and salvage excavations at 8Jal04, a small Weeden Island
campsite on property owned by the Gulf Power Company, discovered in recent
construction, and reported to the Florida Division of Archives, History,
and Records Management, The results and analysis of those investigations
have been fully described by George Percy (1976).
The first indication of occupation at the nearby site, 8Ja201, was
the recognition by Mr. J. Kniepper, Supervising Engineer of the Gulf Power
Company, of aboriginal ceramics eroding out of the incline on the southern
edge of Scholz Steam Plant parking lot (Figure 1B). The parking lot area
consists of a fairly level earthen surface with little or no vegetation,
and the southern periphery consists of a two meter drop towards the power
plant road. Following the report by Kniepper, Mr. J. Miller of the Florida
D.A.H.R.M. performed a limited surface reconnaissance of the area which
recovered additional aboriginal sherds and lithic material. A more
intensive archaeological survey was then performed by the field crews
directed by the authors. This indicated that the surface area immediately
to the north of the parking area displayed obvious indications of recent
disturbances. Local informants stated that the ridge had been plowed as
recently as two years ago. Another indication of disturbance noted were
a series of small (10 cm high) dirt ridges characteristic of blade shaving
by bulldozers. It was determined that the site, which was to be destroyed,
warranted further investigation and Duncan Wilkie was given charge of a
small crew for one week.
Taking into account the above information, two limited and potentially
attainable objectives were established to be met by testing the site.
First, it was decided to make a complete and systematic surface survey of
the site area to determine its spatial extent. Certain topographic features
determined which areas could be surveyed. A railroad cut to the north and
west of the site limited the potential to determine the existence of any
portions of the site in that direction. Likewise, extensive land alteration
to the northeast of the power plant, as well as recent road construction,
determined an effective southern boundary of the site (see Figures 1 and 2)
The site was gridded into four areas and all surface artifacts were
assigned to one of four locations (SW, SE, NW, and NE). This quadrant grid
BROSE AND WILKIE
system was limited by several factors. The crest of the ridge was used
as the north-south axis. However, severe surface alteration near the
parking lot made the delineation of this feature somewhat arbitrary. A
second factor was the survey conditions at particular locations on the
site. The southern quadrants were reduced in areal extent to take into
account the fact that those areas represented exposed soils with no inter-
vening surface vegetation, whereas the northern areas had high grass, and
the NW quadrant had a stand of pine trees.
The second objective was to determine whether the numerous aboriginal
sherds recovered from the surface of the parking lot slope were representa-
tive of surface erosion from some location further north on the proposed
site area, or whether the sherds had been exposed through in situ deflation.
ro test these alternative hypotheses a number of one meter square test units
were excavated to discover whether in situ artifacts could be located in the
slope area. Ten additional excavation units were dispersed over the knoll
(locations represented by letters A-G, L-N on Figure 2). The datum point
based to locate each unit was the northeast corner of the guardhouse.
The actual excavations consisted of staking out one meter square test
anits. Arbitrary 10 cm levels were excavated by shovel, unless natural or
culturall strata were encountered, whereupon the excavation procedure was
altered to troweling, to expose and follow surface of subsurface contours
3f different soil facies or cultural strata. Shovel shaving with extensive
troweling was the predominant mode of extracting soil and all soils were
passed through 1/8" hardware cloth. Units A through G were excavated under
qilkie's direction and units K through N were excavated by Brose. No units
vere labeled H, I, or J. Area G consisted of a long profile in an area
)f previous trenching for fence line. This profile was cleaned and inspected
Eor any evidence of paleosols or artifacts. None was found. Also, the
southern bank of the railroad cut to the west and north of the site was
Lnspected for cultural deposits, but it too was found to be sterile. All
excavation units were carried down to a sterile, hard reddish clay facies.
Phe depth below surface of this sedimentary layer ranged from 6 cm in unit
: to a depth of 15 cm in units M and A. The contact layer between this soil
stratum and the overlying brownish, gravelly silt yielded the only evidence
)f in situ cultural materials. The depth of this intermittent prehistoric
occupationn level ranged between 10 and 15 cm below surface. Soil formation
ibove this level was extensively disturbed by recent surface alterations.
The Scholz Parking Lot Site (8Ja201) lies approximately 450 meters
forth of the west bank of the Apalachicola River in Jackson County, Florida
;Sneads Quandrangle, Section 12, township 3 north, range 7 west). In river
Ailes (probably more appropriate for aboriginal settlement) the site is
.3 miles below from the forks of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, and
.s 103 miles upstream from Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. The
)resent U.S. Army, Mobile District Corps of Engineers Jim Woodruff Dam is
.ocated slightly to the south of the original junction of the Chattahoochee
ind Flint Rivers and presently forms Lake Seminole (Figure 1A).
SCHOLZ STEAM PLANT UNITS I ond 2
5- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT SITE PLAN WITH
4 8 3 8 04 IAT104 gAEL9AND Me 201
90 A POND
4- CONTOUR INTERVA IO'AND AS SHOWN ON
GULF POWER SITE PLAN OF 6/16/75
g ////-/HHHn SHERDSS IN DISTURBED AREA t
LI \\\\. SERD SCATTER IN LIGHT SAND SOIL
POND DARK MAIDEN OIL, SHELL AND ARTIFACT
-- -A OX" AREA OF ASH AND L( ZID N POND
AS OF 6/45TS
FIND LOCATION OF WEEDEN ISLAND POT AND /
POSSIBLE LOCATION OF SAMPSON's
COAL STORAGE YARD
MAP ADAPTED FROM GULF POWER COMPANY
GENERAL ARRANGEMENT SITE PLAN OF 6//16/7
7 ENTRAE 8Ja201
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
0 20 40 60
LOCATION OF TEST UNITS AT 8Ja201
BROSE AND WILKIE
The site is set on a ridge which overlooks a backswamp behind the river
levee further to the south and southwest. This ridge is the eastern extension
of that geomorphological feature on which 8Jal04 is situated and which is re-
ferred to as the Grand Ridge (Puri and Vernon 1964). Elevation of the site
ranges from 90 feet above sea level to maximum of 105 feet above sea level.
The present surface contours of the ridge around the site are composed of
small knolls on a gentle slope. This slope quickly drops eastward to become
a steep incline towards the river. Between Grand Ridge and the Apalachicola
River lies a backswamp zone approximately two hundred meters across. This
swamp was restricted on the river side by a levee which forms a small part
of the discontinuous land formation that stretches along the west bank of
Apalachicola River. Aboriginal occupation has been reported from numerous
archaeological collections and/or excavations along this levee, as far to
the north as the forks of the Flint and Chattahoochee, some three river
miles upstream from 8Ja201. Similar archaeological data from the levee
immediately to the east of 8Ja201 are unavailable due to the extensive
alterations of the levee for power plant construction.
The summary tabulation of artifacts within each of the quadrants
reveals that the highest concentration occurred in the SE and NE sections.
Decorated pottery was almost completely restricted to those two areas.
The NE section had 44% and SE yielded 30.5% of all recovered ceramics which
displayed some type of decoration. The frequency of recovered lithic
material was slightly higher in the NE section as opposed to the SE section,
but the rest of the knoll appeared to be almost void of any type of art-
ifacts. Two factors appear to be responsible for this. First, the NE
area had five excavation units, the greatest number for any quadrant.
However, only units "B" and "C" produced artifacts and the remaining units
were either sterile or showed signs of recent disturbance (i.e. unit F).
This might indicate less sampling bias than would be initially suggested.
Furthermore, there is some locational significance to the presence of
Feature 1 in unit "M" from the SE quadrant. This feature yielded a sign-
ificant frequency of artifacts which resulted in that quadrant having
a higher proportion of recovered materials.
The overall concentration seems to be along the crest of the knoll.
The erosion of this area (natural and by stripping) accounts for the
numerous sherds recovered from the surface of the parking lot. Prior to
the construction of the power plant, this area represented a slight pro-
montory on the back rim of the swamp. It lies on a steep embankment
dropping towards the swamp itself. The site would thus have been located
on the highest ground which escapes annual flooding, but able to utilize
the river, the swamp, and the uplands to the west.
This undisturbed cultural deposit was encountered lying conformably
at the contact zone of the reddish clay. The feature measuring 18 to 20 cm
in diameter consisted of a shallow (2.5 cm) depression in the hard clay.
It was located in the southeast corner of the 1 m 2, unit M. The
occupation stratum consisted of a dark brown to reddish-brown soil, 2 to
3 cm in depth. It was mottled with intermittent charcoal flakes, A
charcoal sample from this feature was obtained for future radiocarbon
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
determination. This stratum extended throughout the excavation unit at
an average depth of 15 cm below surface. No stratification was noted within
the feature, however, it contained numerous artifacts among which were
sixty-two fragments of pottery. (See Table 1). Within the surrounding
dark reddish-brown stratum eight small fragments of daub were recovered.
These materials are too fragmentary to display other than minimal traces of
vegetation impressions or other indicators of house structure. Their
existence at the site does provide some evidence for of at least semi-
permanent dwellings. On the basis of this slim conjectural evidence, it
may be argued that at least some portion of the occupation occurred in
the fall through spring period (cf. Brose 1980:19-22). There is no
evidence from Feature 1 to indicate a cultural origin, such as a deliber-
ately excavated pit might be expected to yield. The overall feature
morphology strongly suggests that this feature represents the filling of a
natural undulation on the clay facies on which the artifacts were deposited.
This hypothesis of implying scattered midden lenses throughout the site,
is supported by the presence of a similar and discontinuous shallow
reddish-brown layer with charcoal flakes in excavation unit A. In that
stratum a few unutilized waste flakes of chert and two pieces of grit-
tempered plain pottery were recovered. A similar occupation layer was
encountered in unit B at a depth between 6 and 15,cm. This zone also
displayed an artifact assembledge of small undiagnostic pottery fragments
and a few waste flakes. The remaining excavation units had no evidence of
this reddish-brown silt stratum, but units C and D yielded scattered chips
and small sherds at a similar depth at the contact zone of hard red clay and
the disturbed upper sediments. Overall the picture suggests that these
strata represent the undisturbed remnants of a single limited occupation
over a short duration. It is likely that site 8Ja201 represents a function-
ally specialized camp occupied for the exploitation of specific resources
occurring in the Grand Ridge environment. The exact nature of resource
exploitation is uncertain due to the scarcity of faunal remains, but the
site location suggests economic orientation toward non-riparian micro-
environments. A use of this area as an early morning hunting base camp
is offered for consideration, and some justification for this hypothesis
will be developed later in this paper.
Ceramics Recovered from Excavation Unit M
Lake Jackson Incised, type 4 1/0
Fort Walton Incised, subtype A 1/0
Wakulla Check-Stamped 2/4
Chattahoochee Brushed 0/3
Notched Rim 1/0
Plain Rim 2/0
Plain body sherds (grit-temper) 0/24
BROSE AND WILKIE 179
The total ceramic inventory recovered from 8Ja201 consists of 341
sherds. Some 282 of these were undecorated, and 59 had traces of stylistic
motifs. The extremely fragmented condition of most of this ceramic
assemblage made it impossible to reconstruct vessel shapes and forms.
Any attempt based on such evidence would be speculative. The limited size
of ceramic sherds with decoration created sorting problems in terms of the
existing prevailing ceramic typologies for Northwestern Florida. Wakulla
check stamp variants were the most frequent type recovered. Rim sherds
have been described in detail because unfortunately they cannot be classi-
fied accurately into the existing 'whole pot' typologies. A summary state-
ment of the ceramics recovered from 8Ja201 is presented in Table 2.
Total Ceramic Inventory of 8Ja201
Typologically Assignable rim/body total percent
Wakulla Checked-Stamped 4/26 30 8.8
Fort Walton "A" 0/6 6 1.76
Lake Jackson Incised 1/0 1
Lake Jackson Plain, style 4 1/0 1
Chattahoochee Brushed 0/2 2
Marsh Island Incised? 0/1 1 6.74
Fingernail Indented 0/1 1
Misc. a) decorated 0/4 4
b) rim sherds 13/0 13
Subtotal 19/40 59 17.3
Plain Body Sherds: (paste)
a) fine 1/75 22.0
b) medium 0/177
c) coarse 0/30 60.7
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
Wakulla Check Stamped
This ceramic type is the most prevalent of the diagnostic ceramic
types. Of the total ceramic inventory only 8.8% (N=30) fall under the
heading of "check stamp variant." However, this is the largest single
class which can be clearly delineated and compared with ceramic inventories
from other sites in the Apalachicola area, Wakulla Check Stamp in this
paper is analogous to the definition presented by Willey (1949:437-438),
and seems to have fairly restricted limits. Body sherd thickness ranges
from 7.7 mm to 4.2 mm, which approximates as Willey's measurements of
5.0 mm to 8.0 mm. The lands (i.e., lines between depressions) range
from 1.5 mm to 4.2 mm, within the 1.0 mm to 5.0 mm range described by
Willey. Undefined "check stamp" ceramics from the Lake Jackson Site
have a reported distance between lands of 2.0 mm. to 7.0 mm (Griffin
1950:106). It appears that the metric distance for lands at 8Ja201 is
in the lower range of the defined type Wakulla Check Stamp. The signifi-
cance of such a difference is not known,although Willey (1949) and Smith
(1951) have suggested a temporal progression from Early Weeden Island,
with a small Gulf Check Stamped type, through Late Weeden Island and Fort
Walton with Wakulla, to historic Apalachee Leon Check Stamped, we must
remember that the Deptford Check Stamped ceramics which occur prior to
Weeden Island, and which appear to still exist in the Southeast as late as
Early Fort Walton (Milanich 1971) are often larger than Leon Check Stamped.
Within the group of check stamped sherds there is a noticeable dichotom'
between equal accent of horizontal and vertical lands within a square
pattern; and a second type which accents linear stress of one direction.
Bullen (1958:352) noted this distinction at Chattahoochee Landing, when
discussing the problems of defining a "pure Wakulla site," Equal relief
of lands or both axes of the square pattern is considered by Bullen (1958)
and Willey (1949) to be typical of Wakulla, but numerous minor variants
confound the problem. The assemblage at 8Ja201 yielded both of the sub-
types which have been labeled Wakulla Check Stamp "A" and "B". The former
represents the classic design and is characterized by equivalent lands
(Figure 3, A, E, F) while subtype "B" illustrates the slight linear emphasis
of parallel orientation of lands (Figure 3, G, H, I, J).
Another trait which occurs with the subtype B linear expression is
the unequal axes distance between lands to approximate a rectangle. The
average distance in the small collection of subtype "B sherds from 8Ja201
is 2.6 mm. These measures are made from the minimum distance across a
rectangle. This subtype tends to display stamped linear lands oriented
diagonally to the vessel lip, but without having the design on the over-
lapping folded rim (Figure 3, B, D). Unfortunately, this orientation is
impossible to determine from body sherds alone. The orientation of stamping
and the degree of accent of the linear form are here mentioned (Table 3)
as possible traits which should be considered in the analysis of larger
collections. It is unknown if these traits are chronologically significant.
Griffin (1950:106) reported the presence of diagonal check stamping below
undecorated rims from Lake Jackson Site,
BROSE AND WILKIE 181
Metric Analysis of Wakulla Checked Stamped
Ceramics from 8Ja201
Type Amount Size of Checks # Checks Per Sq. Cm.
A Square (large) 6 x = 3.6 mm 6
(small) 6 x = 2.4 mm 9-12
B Linear (rectangular) 9 x = 2.6 mm 9
Indeterminate 9 -
All thirty sherds of Wakulla Check Stamped are well fired with a fine
sand/mica tempering. There is no evidence of either shell or coarse grit
as tempering. Predominant paste color is a light buff which shows no signs
of smoke smudging on the exterior surfaces. A few sherds have grey-black
interior surface with a polished luster (Figure 3, A, C). In general the
check stamped sherds are well fired without any signs of deterioration from
being in moist clayey soils.
The check stamped ceramics include four rims two of which came from
Unit M in the SE quadrant and two others of which were recovered from the
surface in the NE quadrant. All displayed exterior folded rims. Check
stamping was immediately below the folded rim, except in one case the
check stamping was carried onto the rim (Figure 3, A). The following is
a detail description of the rim sherds:
A. Rim (Figure 3, A; 4, A)
a. Overlap height from lip to end of fold 18.5 mm.
width 7.2 mm
b. Width below folded rim 5.0 mm
c. Temper sand/mica
d. Color grey/black
Comments: Wakulla Check Stamp (Willey 1949:439, Fig. 53),
from Feature 1, Unit M
B. Rim(Figure 3, B; 4, B)
a. Overlap height 6.0 mm, width 5.9 mm
b. Increase width below rim 7,0 mm
c. Temper sand/mica
d. Color grey/black
Comments: Stamping right angles to rim, from Feature 1
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
0 1 2 3 4 5
TYPOLOGICALLY ASSIGNABLE CERAMICS RECOVERED FROM 8Ja201
RIM PROFILES OF CERAMICS RECOVERED AT 8Ja201
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
C. Rim (Figure 3, C; 4, C)
a. Overlap height 8.6 mm
b. Width below fold 6.1 mm, increase to 8.0 mm at end
c. Temper small grit
d. Color buff
Comments: Surface partially eroded, straight rim, from NE
D. Rim (Figure 3, D; 4, D)
a. Small weakly developed overlap rim: height 5.0 mm
b. Max. width 7.0 mm
c. Temper sand/mica
d. Color buff
Comments: Stamping diagonal to rim (Willey and Woodbury 1942:
Plate XII, Fig. 1, c), NE.
The Wakulla Check Stamped ceramics at 8Ja201 indicate either Late
Weeden Island II or Early Fort Walton occupation. Willey (1949:438)
clearly implied that there was overlap of check stamp variants into the
Fort Walton period. The high frequencies of this ceramic type at 8Ja201
suggest that the site was occupied relatively early within the Early
Fort Walton period, i.e. period I in Bullen's chronology of Fort Walton
sites (1958:349). At the Chattahoochee Landing Site (8Gd4), Wakulla Check
Stamp accounted for 40% of all sherds. It has been considered a Fort
Walton site on the basis of the ceramic tempering, smooth-black surfaces,
and presence of flat-topped domicile mounds. Bullen (1958:352) noted
no temporal change in this pottery type throughout the midden layer
(between 8 and 12 inches deep). Check stamping was also the dominant
type recovered from an earlier surface collection of the same site. In
extrapolating from this information to 8Ja201 we would assume that the same
relative percentage of check stamping would occur, if 8Ja201 were completely
excavated. Test Unit "M" offers some support for this assumption, for in
that unit six Wakulla check stamped sherds were in direct association with
The Early Fort Walton placement for the occupation of SJa201 is
supported by the relative placement of Coe's Landing Site (8Jal37) in
Bullen's Chronology at the II/III Fort Walton phase at A.D. 1300 (Brose 1980
This attribution was based on the typological similarity between ceramic
assemblages at Coe's Landing and at Zone 4 of 8Ja8 (Bullen's J-5; 1958:348)
which has been radiocarbon dated 1400 200. The stratigraphy at Coe's Land
supports the placement of 8Ja201 in the transition from Late Weeden Island
to Fort Walton I. Wakulla Check Stamp occurred in the lower level (C1) at
Coe's Landing Site in small quantities, but, was not present in upper levels
BROSE AND WILKIE
(Brose 1980, Table 2). This added to evidence which indicates that a
continuous transition from Late Weeden Island into Early Fort Walton
(Brose and Percy 1974; Brose et al., 1976; Scarry 1979a). Perhaps the
percent of Wakulla Check Stamp can serve as some index of placement within
the temporal sequence.
Fort Walton Incised
The presence of Fort Walton Incised ceramics confirms the placement of
8Ja201 in the Fort Walton sequence, although only 1.76% (N=6) of the total
sherd count could be clearly assigned to the Fort Walton Incised type.
Willey and Woodbury (1942:244) divided this ceramic type into three sub-
types of which the first two are variations of curvilinear and rectilinear
motifs and punctations. The third subtype is characterized by incised
lines in a scroll of volute pattern and was later incorporated into the
type Point Washington Incised (Willey 1949; Griffin 1950:104). Six sherds
from 8Ja201 can be classified as subtype A. All display linear incising
which encloses a field of punctations (Figure 3, P,Q,R,S,T). The puncta-
tions are round reed impressions and the incised lines have rectangular
cross-section. Similar decoration can be seen in illustrations of Willey's
holotypes (1949:462, Fig. 58). Tempering is sand with some traces of mica.
The color ranges from a buff hue on five sherds to one grey-black sherd
which has a polished'interior surface. It may have been smoke darkened
over a smudge pit (Munson 1969:84). Griffin (1950:104) stated that subtype
A consists of groups of parallel incised lines in a curvilinear pattern.
Subtype A was more common in earlier excavations at the Lake Jackson Site
(Griffin 1950:102, Fig. 37, 11-16) and appears identical to the sherd
recovered from 8Ja201, where the sherds of Incised subtype A appear to be
a development from some of the Weeden Island Incised motifs. This supports
the previous placement of 8Ja201 in the transitional period between typical
Late Weeden Island (Willey's WI II) and classic Fort Walton. Although no
rim sherds represent this subtype at 8Ja201, we note that Griffin (1950:108)
claimed both Weeden Island Incised and Fort Walton Incised vessels displayed
similar folded rims. A discussion of rims will be taken up in a following
section, but it is interesting to note.that no folded rims can be related
to subtype A.
The presence of Fort Walton Incised, subtype A supports Bullen's
(1958:349) seriation where Fort Walton II is characterized by a lack of
check stamp and the presence of Fort Walton Incised, subtype A and Pinellas
Incised B. The latter ceramic style is completely absent from 8Ja201, but
this could be sampling error. Nonetheless, the low frequency of subtype A
precludes 8Ja201 representing very Early Fort Walton II. The similar pre-
dominance of Fort Walton incised subtype A over subtype B in zone 4 at
Bullen's Site 8Ja8, suggests some degree of general contemporaneity with
8Ja201. However, the lack of Wakulla Check Stamped ceramics from the
in situ excavations of 8Ja8 tends to argue against a strictly coeval
occupation relationship between the two sites which are less than 5 miles
apart, and indicates that 8Ja201 is slightly earlier. Bullen, in a 1948
surface survey of 8Ja8, secured a sample which had over 13% (32 out of 234)
check stamped sherds. The actual excavation of the Fort Walton zone at the
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
same site uncovered only 3 check stamped sherds out of 6,000 (Bullen
1958:348). The explanation given was that this represented different
locations within the site. At 8Ja8 the majority of check stamped sherds
came from the southern section. At 8Ja201 there seems to be indications
of a concentration of check stamped sherds in the eastern half of the site
(i.e., 18 out of 30). Thus, although the extremely small sample of Fort
Walton Incised subtype A (N=6) offers little conclusive support for intra-
site variation as a viable explanation, it is likely that percentages of
decorated sherds have spatial significance (on intra-site scale) in
addition to temporal implications on inter-site scale, The control of
spatial as well as temporal units thus is seen as critical in analyzing
a limited time segment such as one occupation level in a multi-level site,
or a short duration campsite (cf. Brose 1980; Brose et al. 1976).
Additional Fort Walton Incised ceramics at 8Ja201 represent a single
fragment of a Fort Walton Plate lateral rim expansion (Willey 1949:461,
Fig. 5, d). The specimen (Figure 3, Y) has two parallel incised lines
converging on another incised line at right angles, and within the design
is a indistinct half-circle punctation. The design is limited to the upper
surface of the rim expansion. The two longest margins show signs of
fragmentation, so exact orientation of the rim expansion to a bowl is
undetermined. The sand/mica temper is a fine typical Apalachicola Valley
Early Fort Walton paste. Thickness ranges from 11.0 mm at the contact
point with the bowl to 8.0 mm at the terminal projection. The color is a
uniform grey-black with a shiny surface, indicative of the use of smudge
Lake Jackson Incised
There are problems determining which sherds are definitely classifiable
within any one of the Lake Jackson subtypes. Previous classifications
(Willey 1949; Willey and Woodbury 1942; Jones and Penman 1973) defined types
and/or subtypes by the "whole pot" approach, or by the handles, and associate
traits (Brose 1980). This creates problems when dealing with limited ceramic
inventories such as at 8Ja201 where the fragmented nature of sherds makes
subtypes assignment unreliable. Therefore, in the following discussion,
detailed description is given for decorated sherds and indication offered
of the possible typological variant considered the most likely candidate.
However,a total revision of Northwest Florida prehistoric ceramics along
the type-variety model Phillips (1970) has used for the Yazoo Basin is
clearly necessary (cf. Scarry 1978).
The most diagnostic Lake Jackson rim sherd recovered at 8Ja201 has a
node with a lower and upper projection (Figure 3, AA; 4, K). The distance
from upper point to the lower point of this node is 24.0 mm, but these points
are not clearly defined. There is a slight concavity in between them. Ex-
terior notching on the lip is spaced 6.2 mm apart. There are two incised
lines on the exterior surface below the rim. The upper line is 15.0 mm
from the lip and the second is 9.5 mm below the first. The paste is inter-
mediate between fine Fort Walton and coarse Lake Jackson Plain. Incised
grooves are asymmetrical in that the upper margin is more deeply cut into
BROSE AND WILKIE
the vessel. The lower margin is shallow and tapers out onto the exterior
surface. Thickness of this sherd below the second incised line is 5.5 mm.
This sherd seems similar to Lake Jackson Incised, style #1 (Jones
and Penman 1973:81, P1. 4, e). Brose (1980 P1. II, a-c) has recovered a
similar style #2 rim at Coe's Landing although that rim had one point nodes
as opposed to two point nodes of style I. Node style distinguishes style
I from II (Jones and Penman 1973:76). The presence of only two incised
lines for the rim from 8Ja201 does not conform fully to the definition by
Jones and Penman (1973) from the Winewood Site. However, a third incised
line may be represented (and probably had been instrumental in causing
a fracture) at the sherd base. Evidence for this comes from four
exterior-convex/interior-concave sherds of which one has incising along
a fracture line. These sherds possess the same paste and color as the
style I rim sherd, indicating that patterns of fragmentation may create
new styles, especially in limited collections.
Miscellaneous Incised Ceramics
One sherd represents the basal portion of a vessel (Figure 3, X).
It has broad incised lines (3.0 mm across) radiating from the center
in a disorganized fashion. The incised lines are separated from each
other by as much as 5.0 mm. The color is grey-black with a high polished
surface. Tempering is a fine sand/mica and the maximum thickness is 7.0 mm.
The incised lines taper off in a manner similar to Marsh Island
Incised (Bullen 1958: Plate 71, g). This is not conclusive evidence, but
presents some interesting opportunities for speculation: Marsh Island
Incised was present at Coe's Landing (Brose 1980, Plate III, h, j) in
zone 4 at J-5 (Bullen 1958: Plate 71, g, n) and at the Lake Jackson Site
(Griffin 1950:105, Fig, 38, 1-5). Speculation on Marsh Island Incised
"A", in that both have antecedents in the Weeden Island period (Griffin
1950:108). On the other hand Moore (1902) apparently found Marsh Island
associated with historic artifacts. Moore's association may be spurious,
or, alternatively Marsh Island Incised may have had a long period of pro-
duction. The latter, if true would tend to disrupt the chronological
position of the type as so far established by association with other ceramic
styles. We would conclude, tentatively, that if in fact this is a Marsh Island
variant, insufficient evidence exists to place the site further into Lake
Fort Walton period on that basis only.
Three other amorphously incised sherds cannot be classified into
any existing Lake Jackson subtype. One sherd exhibits three faintly
incised lines at right angles to another incised line. The distance
between incised grooves is 5.0 mm. The uniformity of the incising and
the abrupt terminations of these lines implies the use of a stamping
technique. The temper is medium sized grit and the color is light buff.
Two other sherds (Figure 3, U, V) have a fine parallel scratched incising
with a uniform orientation. These ceramics are probably classifiable as
Chattahoochee Brushed. Similar ceramics were taken from River Cut "P"
and disturbed sediments at 8Jal37 (Brose 1980). At the Lake Jackson Site
(Griffin 1950:107) some "brushed pottery" appeared similar to Bullen's
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
Chattachoochee Brushed type. At 8Ja201 this ceramic type is represented
by three sherds extracted from Feature 1.
A single Lake Jackson sherd has a unique set of parallel lands
(3.0 mm apart) which rise slightly above the external surface (Figure 3, W).
The temper is medium grit and is similar to Lake Jackson Plain paste.
Extensive surface erosion is present and may account for the elevated
appearance of the lands. The color is light buff to buff.
One small sherd from 8Ja201 has fingernail indentations. The average
length of four fingernail impressions was 5,0 mm, and there is not set
pattern to their location. Tempering of this sherdlet is sand/mica with
fine paste. Willey's (1949:459) description of Lake Jackson Plain type
lists the presence of fingernail punctations in a row below the rim. So
this sherd might be a variant of Lake Jackson plain. The presence of
fingernail indented type at Chattahoochee Landing, a "pure Wakulla site",
gives some further support to the contemporaneity of that site with 8Ja201
(Bullen 1958:351, Table 6, Plate 73, c).
Miscellaneous Rim Sherds
The rim sherds from 8Ja201 described below do not readily fall into
a ceramic style defined by existing typological literature. Lip notching
and exterior incising are predominant decoration modes. The limited size
of sherds below the rim handicaps any accurate reconstruction of rim
profile or particular vessel form. Notched lips have been associated with
numerous regional ceramic types. Small closely spaced notches on the exteric
margin of lips occur with Fort Walton period rims (Willey 1949:462). Griffir
(1950:107, 109) claims Fort Walton Incised A lacks lip notching, but Pinellas
Incised, Lake Jackson Plain, and some Marsh Island variants have the trait.
Therefore, the presence of notched rims does not appear to be a particularly
useful diagnostic trait to differentiate ceramic series or types within
1. Rim (Figure 3, 0; 4, E) Slight exterior version
decor.: notched lip (4,0 mm apart), three incised lines
(9.0 mm apart) Coles Creek line incising
temper: medium grit
location: SE quadrant surface
BROSE AND WILKIE
2. Rim (Figure 4, F) Straight
decor.: plain, thickness below rim 10.0 mm,
color: light buff
temper: coarse grit (Lake Jackson paste)
comments: constructed from 3 pcs.
location: surface disturbed
3. Rim (Figure 3, N; 4, G) Straight
decor.: notched lip (8.0 mm. apart, 6.0 mm long),
thickness 9.0 mm.
color: orange to buff
temper: medium fine grit
location: disturbed surface
4. Rim (Figure 3, K; 4, H) Straight
decor.: notched lip (4.0 mm apart, 8.0 mm long)
groove on top of rim, thickness 8.0 mm.
color: grey-black (polished surface)
temper: sand/mica (Fort Walton paste)
comments: Similar notching to Fort Walton A (Griffin
1950:102, Fig. 37, 10).
location: disturbed surface
5. Rim (Figure 3, L; 4, I) Slightly curved exteriorly
decor.: Two incised lines (14.0 mm below lip, 3.00 mm apart),
very small lip notches 1.0 mm apart, thickness 5.0 mm.
temper: sand/mica (Fort Walton paste)
location: NE quadrant
6. Rim (Figure 4, J) Straight
decor.: slight lip protrusion interior and exterior,
thickness 6.0 mm.
temper: sand/mica (polished on both sides)
location: feature #1, unit M.
7. Rim (Figure 4, L) Curved exteriorly.
decor.: slanting lip, rim flair exteriorly, max.
thickness 8.0 mm.
color: light buff
location: NE quadrant
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
8. Rim (Figure 4, M) Straight
decor.: max. thickness 18.0 mm
color: brown mottled
temper: grit (coarse)
comments: interior fire blackened
location: Feature #1, unit M.
9. Rim (Figure 4, N) Straight
decor.: exterior surface rough and interior smooth,
thickness 6.0 mm
color: dark buff
temper: medium grit
10. Rim (Figure 4, 0) slightly curved interiorly
decor.: rough external surface (shows grit),
interior surface smooth, slight lipping interiorly,
thickness 7.0 mm.
color: dark buff
temper: coarse grit
location: unit L 11.6 cm below surface
11. Rim (Figure 4, P) Straight
decor.: lip notch (extremely small), thickness 5.0 mm,
exterior rough and interior smooth
location: NE quadrant
12. Rim (Figure 4, Q) Slightly curved exteriorly
decor.: errored surfaces, thickness 11.0 mm
temper: coarse gift
location: disturbed road cut
13. Rim (Figure 3, M; 4, R) Straight
decor.: shallow-broad incised line (2.0 mm wide) -
oblique angle from lip, thickness 7,0 mm
location: SE quadrant
BROSE AND WILKIE
Lake Jackson Plain
Jones and Penman (1973:81-83) discuss four variants of Lake Jackson
Plain and numerous anomalous styles. These variants are distinguished by
vessel form, distance between and number of nodes, and types of handles. The
ceramics collected at 8Ja201 have yielded only one handle fragment which can
be assigned to the type Lake Jackson Plain. This handle (Figure 3, Z) has
a light buff color with medium grit temper. At the top is a round pro-
jection extending.away from the vessel rim, and directly attached to the
'loop' part. The handle has been broken at its upper rim attachment and
at the bottom of the 'loop'. The locations of fractures indicate that it
was attached to the vessel as a separate unit. The total length is 45.0 mm
with a width of 15.4 mm and a thickenss of 9.0 mm. The length of the node
from terminal end to rim attachment is 18.0 mm. The node has traces of
fire blackening on top, but not on its under side. The predominant color
of the handle is light buff. This specimen is closely related to Lake
Jackson Plain, style 4 (Jones & Penman 1973:82, Plate 6, g). However, the
assignment of this handle to the Lake Jackson Plain series is tenuous, as
they also occur on Fort Walton Incised and on shell tempered Pensacola Series
types (Willey and Woodbury 1942:245). Griffin (1950:106) used handle
morphology (i.e., strap, loop, and nodes on handles) to distinguish subtype
"C: from other Lake Jackson Plain ceramics. The specimen from 8Ja201 could
classify as subtype "C" on the basis of nodes. It becomes apparent that
these taxonomies are inadequate for the fragmented collection from small
campsites. Brose (1980:9-16) has stressed the need for restructuring aspects
of these earlier typologies in this area.
Undecorated Body Sherds
A total of 282 (82.7%) plain body sherds were collected from 8Ja201.
The type and size of tempering material was used to arbitrarily establish
three categories. The justification for this typology comes from previous
statements claiming a significant difference in tempering material between
Lake Jackson Plain and Fort Walton variants (Griffin 1950; Bullen 1958;
Willey and Woodbury 1942). A statistical analysis of the relationship
between paste type and sherd thickness on the Coe's Landing material (Brose
1980) could demonstrate no statistically significant correlations. This
may suggest eliminating thickness as an influence on type of paste used.
It remains to be demonstrated that in the Apalachicola River Valley there
is any correlation between design motifs and paste types (cf. Brose et al.,
1976). There seems to be some discrepancy between ceramic tempering and
the associated ceramic series. The earliest discussion relating tempering
material to ceramic style (Willey and Woodbury 1942:244) implied that Fort
Walton series ceramics have medium to large grit or grog particles fre-
quently occurring on the surface to give a rough appearance. This is in
opposition to the fine sand/mica tempering which is supposed to characterize
Weeden Island Plain, which are assigned to an earlier period. Brose (1980)
indicated that at sites in the Apalachicola River Valley,Pinellas Plain has
the same fine sand/mica tempering as the Weeden Island pottery. There
appear to be two distinct tempering classes in this area: A coarse Lake
Jackson/Fort Walton paste, and fine Weeden Island/Pinellas Plain paste.
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
Upon further investigation an inconsistency in the literature is revealed:
Bullen (1958:345) in his analysis of the Fort Walton zone in 8Ja8 stated,
"Typically, Lake Jackson sherds contain more tempering
material and have "pebbly" exterior surfaces while those
of the Fort Walton and Pinellas series have well-smoothed
exteriors. Many sherds exhibit the smooth, frequently black,
interior surface that is a feature of Fort Walton ceramics."
The contradiction concerns the tempering material associated with Fort Waltor
series. It is accepted by most archaeologists that Lake Jackson Plain has
coarse tempering and lumpy surfaces (Willey 1949:458; Griffin 1950:106;
Brose 1980). Griffin (1950:106) recorded that the Pinellas Incised re-
covered at the Lake Jackson Site was similar to Lake Jackson Plain in
temper, but "somewhat unlike" Fort Walton Incised. The implication clearly
is that at Lake Jackson itself much Fort Walton ceramic temper tends to be
finer than the temper of the Lake Jackson Plain ceramics. Griffin went on
to say that Willey (1949) originally made the erroneous assumption that
Lake Jackson Plain and Fort Walton Incised had the same tempering in terms
of material and size particles. It has been our experience in the Apala-
chicola River Valley and along the Gulf Coast of the panhandle that Willey
made no error at all, and that in those areas paste and decorations may
occur in free variation. In conclusion we would suggest a continuum from
the Lake Jackson paste with coarse particles which can be clearly observed
on the surface of a sherd, to the other end of this continuum, a decor-
atively similar Weeden Island/Fort Walton Incised with a fine sand/mica
paste and with a smooth (or smoothed to the point of burnishing) surface.
We can offer no firm evidence in support of either a chronological or
geographical explanation of these phenomena. Nonetheless, we would argue
that it is in the relatively earlier Fort Walton sites of the Apalachicola
River Valley and adjacent coast that this apparent cultural experimentation
with ceramic attributes occurs, and that it is in the relatively late sites
of the Tallahassee Red hills where consistent correlations of paste/temper
and design motif are fixed. Thus,both Willey (1949) and Griffin (1950)
were locally correct and regionally over-extended in their typologies.
All of the plain sherds recovered in archaeological investigation as
8Ja201 can be classified into three categories based upon their surface
texture and tempering material.
Fine: (Figure 3, 0)
a. Light buff color
b. Surface smooth
c. Fine sand/mica tempering and well-fired
d. Average thickness 7.0 mm (1.9 to 5.0 mm)
a. Buff to yellowish-brown
b. Surface intermittent bumps of medium size grit particles
c. Grit tempering medium particles (max. dia. 1.5 mm)
d. Average thickness 6.0 mm (5.0 to 11.0 mm)
BROSE AND WILKIE
Coarse: (Figure 3, P)
a. Buff to off-white
b. Surface coarse and bumpy texture
c. Grit tempering particle size 1.6 to 2.2 mm
d. Average thickness 9.5 mm (8.0 to 11.0 mm)
From the previous discussion it is clear that one can include the 'medium'
and 'coarse' categories within the definition of Lake Jackson paste, and
that the 'fine' categories can be classified as Weeden Island/Fort Walton
paste. These categories are arbitrary, especially the intermediate class
which obviously will show characteristics of both types. Again, we stress
that inferred correlations between paste type and decoration motif have
not been demonstrated in any detailed analysis. Our present analysis was
designed to determine whether the plain ceramics recovered at 8Ja201
could be viewed in some taxonomic manner which in some fashion might be
a reflection of the site's apparent chronological position in a Fort Walton
in any way supports the chronological positioning of the site in Fort
Walton I/II period, this periodization is ultimately based on Bullen's
(1958) identification of four ceramic periods of Fort Walton. It was
derived from his analyses of the percentages of ceramic types at 8Ja8,
zone 4, where plain sherds with Fort Walton paste represented 86% of the
total ceramic assemblage. These ceramics would have been considered under
our present classification as "fine" paste. The same paste category at
8Ja201 represented only 22% of the assemblage, while what is being called
Lake Jackson paste accounted for 60.7% of the total ceramic inventory.
There is a considerable difference between these two sites in terms of the
relative frequency of these paste types. However, the former (8Ga8) site
had evidence of a structure, so the ceramic differences such as they are,
may be due to the nature of occupation (i.e. village vs. campsite). At
Chattahoochee Landing (8Gd4) Bullen (1958:351, Table 6) recorded 54% of
the ceramic as "sand-tempered plain." The tempering of the plain sherds
recovered at 8Ja201 is considerably different, but again the presence of
domicilary mounds at 8Gd4 could be a complicating factor. It is apparent
that the analyses of temper alone provides little information on the exact
chronological position of the Gulf Power Plant Parking Lot site. The
majority (over 60%) of undecorated pottery at 8Ja201 has Lake Jackson plain
paste. This, we feel, supports the statement that they represent sherds
assignable to the Lake Jackson series.
In short, given the statistically insignificant size of ceramic samples
from all of these sites (8Ja201; 8Jal87; 8Ga8; 8Gd4; and Lake Jackson);
and given the significant functional and demographic differences that such
morphologically dissimilar archaeological sites must represent, and given
the ecological and geographical differences between these sites, therefore
we do not believe that these ceramic differences or similarities discussed
above can be taken as simple chronological indices. That change through
time may be reflected by changes in aboriginal prehistoric ceramics seems a
reasonable hypothesis adequately documented throughout the world. Less
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
well documented, but no less true is the fact that differences in ceramics
also may reflect individual social status; socio-ceremonial role of the
archaeological site; size and demographic composition of the site occupants;
functional and seasonal role of the settlement type; economic role and/or
social organization of the ceramic manufacturers; and economic, or function
correlations of ceramic attributes (whether technologically required or
socially accepted). The ceramic assemblage recovered at the Gulf Power
Plant Parking Lot site (8Ja201) certainly represents a Fort Walton assemblage
by any northern Florida standards. While it is in many ways similar to
the assemblages recovered at other Fort Walton sites in the Upper Apalachi-
cola River Valley and in the Tallahassee area, the differences between those
sites and 8Ja201 and the limited size of samples from all urge caution in
In general the lithic assemblage recovered from 8Ja201 is composed of
local flint, shows extensive signs of heat alteration, and lacks evidence
of sophisticated chipping techniques. Most of the flaking appears to have
been achieved by percussion flaking with only limited evidence of controlled
pressure flaking. The total number of all types of chipped stone stems is
one-hundred forty nine. Four categories were isolated based upon an hypoth-
esized reconstruction of the production technique. These consist of core
fragments, primarily decortication flakes, secondary flakes, (White:1963)
and shatter flakes (Table 4).
The northeast quadrant yielded the highest concentration of all
the categories of chips (i.e., 50.3%, N = 75). This same area had 47.2%
(N = 17) of all lithic materials which had any evidence of heat alteration
(viz Purdy 1975:132-141). For the site as a whole, 31.8% (N = 36) of the
recovered lithic materials showed similar signs of intensive heat alteration.
The Northeast quadrant appears to have been the location of flint knapping
and heating alteration.
BROSE AND WILKIE
Distribution of Unutilized Lithic Materials from 8Ja201
Primary Decortification Flakes:
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
Core Fragments (Figure 5, A-D)
One core fragment from the NE quadrant has extensive signs of heat
treatment in the form of "pot lid" hinges. Another core fragment has a
high polish indicating high temperatures. This last specimen has the
same surface appearance as some secondary flakes. The polished surface
lacks any cortex and has four impact marks suggesting blows at right
angles to the longitudinal axis of the core fragment, Only five pieces
assignable to this category have been heat treated. All have varying
traces of cortex, suggesting that local chert nodules were reduced by first
striking off a portion of cortex and utilizing this area as a striking
platform for further flake or blade production. Remaining core fragments
show numerous structural geological impurities.
The color of the recovered lithic material varies from heat-altered
pinkish to off-white natural cores. Three fragments from the SE quadrant
have a dark pink interior with a fine white crystal cortex. One piece from
the SW quadrant has a blue-black interior covered by tan cortex. The un-
heated pieces are off-white and have a coarse internal structure with
numerous imperfections. This flint is visually similar to specimens
collected in surface bedrock exposures at Two Egg, Florida, approximately
15 miles NNW of 8Ja201, within easy traveling distance (Percy 1976).
Primary Decortication Flakes
These are flakes which display ubiquitous discontinuous areas of cortex.
They are representative of an early stage in the reduction of the alteration
of flint cores into workable sizes and forms. These flakes are hypothesized
to be by-products from such initial core formation. The small total number
(N = 16) may be a result of what seems to have been rather haphazard shaping
of the core. Lack of uniformity in core fragments supports the inferred
unstructured technology in producing these flakes. Cortex is not limited
to dorsal surface, but often extends to portions of the concave, ventral
surface and is even continued across scars indicating where it was detached
from the core. The color of the cortex grades from yellowish-tan to off-
white and below a depth of 4.5 to 7.0 mm the inner flint has a pinkish hue.
A total of eleven flakes display heat treatment, while five are unaltered.
They range in size from 42.0 x 32.0 mm to 23.0 x 20.0 mm, while the thick-
ness is extremely variable.
Of the thirty-one secondary flakes seven show signs of heat treatment.
These flakes have a high surface shine, and one has conchoidal ripple marks
and a pronounced bulb of percussion (Figure 5, E). This combination of
elements suggests that fracturing did not occur from rapid heating (cf. Purd)
1975). The natural color of the flint is yellowish to off-white. In heating
the color changes to a reddish hue. The color changes at a substantially
lower temperature than that temperature needed to drive off internal water
BROSE AND WILKIE
and thus increase ease of chipping. However, a surface sheen with reddish
color implies a temperature to effect chipping (Purdy and Brooks 1971).
Most flakes showing thermal alteration were recovered from the eastern
quadrants of the site.
The majority of all recovered flakes have partial remains of a bulb
of percussion and an associated striking platform. The flake's distal end
is generally represented by an abrupt fracture, sometimes a hinge fracture.
The concave ventral flake surface is smooth while the exterior is dissected
by previous flake scars. Dimensions of secondary flakes range from a
maximum of 55.0 x 28.0 mm to a minimum of 25.0 x 20.0 mm.
This category appears to consist of detritus from the production of
artifacts. These flakes are too small to be utilized as tools. They are
usually considered to represent by-products of blade production from cores.
The majority of specimens displaying heat treatment came from the eastern
sections of the site. In particular the NE quadrant of the site. A total
of 91 shatter flakes were recovered ranging in size from 25.0 by 20.0 mm
to a minimum of 13.0 by 10.0 mm. The exterior dorsal exhibits numerous
flake scars while the ventral surface is slightly concave.
The relatively low frequencies of finished lithic artifacts in Fort
Walton sites has influenced the amount of research done on lithic class-
ification (viz. Brose 1980). For this reason a detailed description is
given for those lithic artifacts recovered from 8Ja201 and a hypothesis
based upon a reduction model is set forth to account for this observed
technology. The actual lithic artifacts are few in number and in general
show a poor quality of craftsmanship.
Bifacial Scraper (Figure 5, F)
This artifact was recovered from the northeast section of 8Ja201. In
outline the shape is non-descript with a fairly straight distal scraping
edge with transverse striae. The semi-pointed base has no evidence of
hafting. The scraping edge shows some minor bifacial retouching in the
central portion. The maximum length is 58.0 mm and width is 51.0 mm.
The maximum thickness of 14.0 mm occurs at the basal area and appears to
represent a minimally reduced bulb of percussion. The scraper was thinned
following removal from a prepared core by detaching a series of flakes
across the center portion struck towards the cutting edge. The cross-section
has a thick lenticular shape with bifacially worked surfaces. The high
surface polish and color alteration on all save striking over implies that
extreme heat treatment of the artifact occurred after initial flake removal
and thinning, and prior to final retouch.
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
A second category of scrapers have unifacially flaked and parallel
edges. These edges show no evidence of striated wear patterns (Semenov
1964). One complete scraper has a triangular cross-section formed by a
central ridge. Flake scars extend to the edges. Stepped or resolved
hard-hammer secondary distal flaking on the ends are characteristic of
this small collection. Two scraper fragments show a similar expression of
secondary flaking on end segments. These artifacts have shallow lenticular
cross-section with no distinct central ridge. One additional basal fragment
has limited traces of bifacial retouching, which is unique to this collection
All scrapers have evidence of heat alteration on all flake scarred and have
a reddish-white striped color.
Scraper (Figure 5, G)
a) dimensions: 51.0 x 27.0 x 7.0 mm
b) banded white-tan-pink
c) platform and bulb of percussion
d) lenticular cross-section
Scraper ( Figure 5, H)
a) dimensions (fractured) 33.0 x 30.0 x 7.0 mm
c) bifacially flaked
d) lenticular cross-section
Scraper (basal fragment) (Figure 5, I)
a) dimensions: width = 33.0 mm, thickness = 7.0 mm
c) lenticular cross-section
d) steep retouching on basal edge
Projective Point (Figure 5, J)
The fractured tip of this projectile point has been retouched, probably
to be used as a hafted scraper. The chipping pattern is difficult to analyze
because of the degree of patina. The maximum length of 35.0 mm does not
account for the fractured tip, and the thickness of 10.0 mm occurs at mid-
blade. The width of the stem is 22.0 mm. The basal element of this stem
is slightly concave with projecting tangs. The symmetrical shoulder outline
is due to retouching the broken point. The transverse cross-section is
BROSE AND WILKIE
K L M
0 1 2 3 4 5
MISCELLANEOUS NON CERAMIC MATERIALS RECOVERED FROM 8Ja201
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
piano-triangular with the maximum stem thickness between the shoulders.
The flint appears to have been heat-treated, but not extensively.
Blades (Figure 5, K-M)
Core fragments and secondary flakes indicate that the production of
small narrow flakes or blades was a major lithic by-product,and may even
represent the predominant site specific use of flint. These blades were
struck from amorphous cores, which resulted in the production of flakes
about twice as long as they were wide, all with triangular cross-sections.
The central ridge on these blades represents the remnant of a marginal
border between two flake scars previously struck from a core. The proximal
end of most blades shows a striking platform, with the central ridge ex-
tending to this surface. A hammer blow to the platform area created a
blade with a triangular cross-section. The ventral surfaces of these
blades are slightly concave. The uniformity of blade manufacture re-
presented by the recovered debitage from this site, yields an assemblage
with a strikingly similar morphology. Core fragments recovered represent
heat treated exhausted material; their diminished size and impurities made
it impossible to produce lengthy blades from them. Numerous unifacially
worked secondary flakes may indicate preoccupation with achieving uniform
surfaces on cores. This would be ideal for the production of thin blades
with uniform thickness.
The seven blades recovered at 8Ja201 all display a low variant average
length of 29.0 mm, width of 14.0 mm, and thickness of 3.7 mm. It is
interesting to note that none of them show any signs of heat treatment.
It thus appears that some degree of initial selection occurred with those
cores which visually appeared adequate for blade production being exempted
from heat treatment while the nodules or core pieces which had indicated
internal impurities or which appeared to small for 'prismatic blade'
reduction, being subjected to heat treatment. A schematic presentation
of the lithic reduction sequence inferred for the Fort Walton period
occupation at 8Ja201 is illustrated as Figure 6. The total lithic
assemblage is not rich. Nonetheless, its very lack of variability suggests
that it was morphologically restricted both in production technology and in
use. The absence of any heavy inferred pulping or chopping chipped stone
tools and the lack of grinding stones of any type argues against it having
served a wide range of activities. More specifically, the lithic assemblage
recovered at the Gulf Power Plant Parking Lot site suggests an emphasis on
hunting, butchering and hide preparation. This suggestion will be further
The faunal remains recovered from 8Ja201 are limited, both in quantity
and quality. Four splintered ungulate long bone fragments were recovered
at this tie. A fractured left mandible of an adult deer (Odocoileus sp.)
(Figure 5, N) was also recovered from the occupation layer in unit A. The
dentition does not show any signs of extensive attrition, several cut marks
and the fractures are located before the ramus and between two cheek teeth.
Inferred Lithic Reduction Sequence Represented at 8Ja201
Nodular or Tabular Flint
(Blade) Exhausted Core
Large Flakes Exhaus
ted Black Core
Percussion or hard-hammer flaking
Pressure or light hammer flaking
* Heat Treatment
(Recovered at 8Ja201)
202 FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
The presence of this mandible, of the ungulate bone, and of several unident-
ifiable fragments of small mammal long bone from Feature 1, suggest some
degree of hunting orientation as a subsistence mode. It should be pointed
out that conditions for preservation of bone were extremely poor at this
site, and that while recovery methods were not oriented to accurate re-
covery, no ethnobotanical materials of any sort were encountered.
Five complete and seven fragments of shell (Rangia sp.) could support
the presence of a 'diverse' procurement pattern. However, the Rangia sp.
was collected only from the deflated surface areas, thus leaving consider-
able doubt about its association within the site. The largest specimen
was only 3.5 mm in maximum length and this came from the SE quadrant. The
seven remaining fragments of shell were located in the SW and NE quadrants.
Thus, while the recovered ecological remains from the Gulf Power Parking
Lot Site are in no way persuasive, they must be accounted for by some
hypothesis. We believe that the most plausible interpretation, consistent
with the functional interpretation we have offered for the recovered lithic
assemblage, and consistent with the topographic location of the site, is
to view 8Ja201 as a fall to spring hunting camp.
Summary and Interpretations
The Gulf Power Parking Lot Site (8Ja201) has been tentatively placed
in Fort Walton I/II period on the basis of the analysis of pottery styles.
It appears to have been relatively contemporaneous with zone 4 of 8Ja8,
with portions of 8Gd4 (Chattahoochee Landing Site), and possibly with
8Ja7. Numerous other Fort Walton sites, J-2, J-7, J-9 and J-10, were located
to the north of the present day Jim Woodruff Dam, and the now innundated
Lake Seminole. All of these sites were located on natural levees with
sand-silt deposits (Bullen 1958:305). The location of Mississippian sites
on levees has been argued to indicate the utilization of bottomlands for
agriculture (Bullen 1958; Ward 1965; Larson 1972) or to indicate the
exploitation of the rich environmentally diverse ecotones characteristic
of major alluvian bottoms (Smith 1973, 1978; Lewis 1974), The Gulf Power
Plant Parking Lot site (8Ja201) is located off of the levee on the high
ridge which forms the distal rim of the backswamp. It lies on an ecotone
between the relatively dry limestone uplands to the southwest and a large
low diversity backswamp to the west northwest. The soils in the immediate
vicinity of 8Ja201 are clayey, and the Apalachicola River itself would not
have been too easily accessible. Some evidence has been previously pre-
sented to suggest that, in most significant aspects, the early Fort
Walton base camps or villages follow this general Mississippian agri-
cultural pattern, then we may assume that the resources exploited at
small sites such as 8Ja201, located in a different environment, would have
also been different (i.e., non-agricultural). The presence of deer and
other mammal bone tends to support the hypothesis that the site is a
specialized hunting camp, as does the relatively restricted subsistence
lithic strategy at this site. The major (village) component of the inferred
settlement pattern within which 8Ja201 existed, suggested by the presence
of both a ceremonial mound and of additional structures, to have been the
large Curlee site (8Ja7), located on the levee 2 miles north of the Scholz
BROSE AND WILKIE
Parking Lot Site. The Curlee site has yielded evidence of at least two
distinct occupation strata separated by sterile alluvium. The lower
stratum has yielded Wakulla Checked Stamp, Etowah Complicated Stamp, and
Fort Walton Incised pottery. Excavations in village areas and in the
mound, indicate that upper strata at the Curlee site yielded Wakulla
Checked Stamp, several Lake Jackson variants, as well as Fort Walton and
Chattahoochee brushed ceramics (preliminary analysis; Brose n.d.). There
is therefore a strong possibility of contemporaneity between this large
site and campsite 8Ja201. The presence of large ceremonial sites (i.e.,
8Ja7 and 8Gd4), of dwelling sites like J-5 (zone 4) and campsites (i.e.,
8Jal37 and 8Ja201) in an apparently coeval context supports one model for
settlement analysis in the Apalachicola River Valley. Two large sites
with mound structures are located across the river from each other (i.e.,
8Ja7 and 8Gd4 sites). Twenty-five miles downstream are two more Fort
Walton ceremonial temple mound sites: Cayson (8Ca3) and Yon (8Li2)
(Brose 1980; Brose and Percy 1978). In between these major centers which
appear to have been located so as to maximize a Mississippian-like agri-
cultural exploitation, small seasonal camps orientated to the procurement
of alternative resources exist. Coe's Landing (Brose 1980) and the Gulf
Power Plant Parking Lot sites appear to represent coeval Fort Walton sites
of the latter, seasonally and functionally specialized type. They were
occupied as functional segments of a system which, while stressing sedentary
agricultural subsistence, appears less focal than other contemporary Miss-
issippian complexes, and indeed less focused than the later Fort Walton
occupations of the Tallahassee Red Hills area. In that area in terms of
both ceramic styles and of socio-political geography, Fort Walton had
become more mature as a Mississippian settlement system. Nonetheless,
the patterns and pressures which changed a Weeden Island economy and
society into the historic Apalachee of northwest Florida appear to be
initiated earlier, in the Apalachicola River Valley.
Dr. David S. Brose
The Cleveland Museum of Natural History
Duncan C. Wilkie
Southeast Missouri State University
Brose, David S.
1974 (December) A Proposal to the National Science Foundation
for Support of Research on Systematic Relationships of
Diffusion, Demography, and Cultural Ecology in Prehistory:
Archaeological Analysis of Mississippian Origins in North-
west Florida as a Test of Alternative Models. Case Western
Reserve University, Department of Anthropology (unpublished
ms), Cleveland, Ohio
1980 Coe's Landing (8Jal37) Jackson County Florida: A Fort
Walton Campsite or the Apalachicola River. pp 1-31 in
Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties Bulletin No. 6.
Division of Archives, History and Records Management,
Florida Department of State Tallahassee.
FORT WALTON CAMPSITE
Brose, David S., Patricia Essenpreis, John Scarry, Helga Bluestone and
1976 Contributions to the Archaeology of Northwest Florida:
Investigations of Early Fort Walton Sites in the Middle
Apalachicola River Valley.
Manuscript Report of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History
and Case Vvestern Reserve University. pp 1-73. On file at
Florida Division of Archives History and Records Management.
Brose, David S. and George W. Percy
1974 "An Outline of Weeden Island Ceremonial Activity in North-
west Florida." Paper presented at the 39th Annual Meeting
of the Society for American Archaeology. Washington, D.C.
Brose, David S. and George W. Percy
1978 "Fort Walton Settlement Patterns" pp 81-114 in Mississippian
Settlement Patterns. Bruce Smith, editor. Academic Press.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 Six Sites near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff
Reservoir Area, Florida. Smithsonian Institute, Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bulletin No. 169 (River Basin Survey
Papers No. 14), pp. 315-369, Washington, D.C.
Griffin, John W.
1950 Test Excavations at the Lake Jackson Site. American
Jones, B. Calvin and John T. Penman
1973 Winewood: an island Fort Walton Site in Tallahassee,
Florida. Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties,
Bulletin No. 3, Division of Archives, History, and
Records Management, pp. 65-90, Tallahassee, Florida.
1969 Aboriginal subsistence technology on the southeastern
coastal plain during the late prehistoric period. Ph.D.
Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Lewis, R. Berry
1974 Mississippian Exploitative Strategies: A Southeast
Missouri Example. Missouri Archaeological Society Research
Series, No. 11, Columbia, Missouri.
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1902 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida Coast.
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1976 Salvage Investigations at the Scholtz Steam Plant Site
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Percy, George W. and David S. Brose
1974 Weeden Island Ecology, Subsistence and Village Life in
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An archaeological survey of upland locales in Gadsden
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1978a The Chronology of Fort Walton Development in the Upper
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The Development of Mississippian Chiefdoms in Northwest
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London: Cory, Adams and Mackay.
Middle Mississippi exploitation of animal populations.
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Variation in Mississippian Settlement Patterns, pp. 479-504
in Mississippian Settlement Patterns. Bruce Smith, Editor,
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Two Historic Archaeological Periods in Florida.
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Ward, Tra ick
1965 Correlation of Mississippian sites and soil types. The
Southeastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin 3:42-48.
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1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
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1942 A Chronological Outline for the Northwest Florida Coast.
American Antiquity. 7 (3):232-254.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOME ABORIGINAL POTTERY OF THE
CENTRAL PENINSULAR GULF COAST OF FLORIDA
George M. Luer and Marion M. Almy
This article presents a study of changes in the shape of seven kinds
of aboriginal earthenware of the central peninsular Gulf Coast of Florida
(the area from around Tampa Bay to Charlotte Harbor) during the interval
between approximately 250 B.C. and A.D. 800. The study concerns the changes
manifested by 62 potsherds of the Manasota culture (Luer and Almy 1979a,
1979b; Milanich 1980:13) excavated from two shell middens at Sarasota,
Florida. An inspection of these sherds indicates that changes through
time occurred in the thickness of vessel walls, in the shapes of rims, lips,
and vessels, as well as in the kinds of ceramics used. Although this
investigation is based on evidence from just two neighboring sites, there
is evidence that the ceramic changes observed occur along much of the pen-
insular Gulf Coast. The authors hope that this article will encourage
further needed study of the aboriginal earthenware of the Florida Gulf
The Ceramics and the Temporal Interval Involved
The interval involved in this investigation has been determined by
the available stratigraphic data and by the available carbon-14 dates.
These data are derived from two excavations previously reported in the
Florida Anthropologist (Luer 1977a, 1977b) and from further study of the
collections made from those excavations. Occurring throughout the interval
is sand-tempered plain pottery. Occurring late in the interval are:
St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, Pinellas Plain, Belle Glade Plain,
Wakulla Check Stamped, and sand- and grog-tempered plain pottery. Each
ceramic is briefly described and discussed. The morphologic terminology
is based in part on Willey (1949a:496-502) and Shepard (1956). Many of
the terms are graphically represented in Figure 2.
Sand-Tempered Plain. This ceramic category is not a formally defined
ceramic type. The term "sand-tempered plain" is becoming accepted for
this category throughout Florida although during the last 40 years, sherds
of this category have been variously labeled. For example, sherds of this
category have been assigned to obsolete ceramic types (see below) such as
"Glades Plain" or "Glades Gritty Ware" (Goggin 1939, 1940, 1947, 1949;
Willey 1948, 1949a; Bullen 1950a, 1950b; Sears 1960; Wood 1976; Ellis 1977;
Wharton 1977; Goodwin, Pearson and Fioroni 1978; Burger 1979); other sherds
of this category have been called "smooth plain" or "residual plain"
(Willey 1949a); still other sherds of this category have been erroneously
called "Englewood Plain" (Bullen 1971) or "Pinellas Plain" (Milanich 1972;
pers. comm.). The term "sand-tempered plain" for this ceramic category is
well established on the Gulf Coast of central Florida (Bullen 1951, 1952,
1965, 1966; Bullen and Bullen 1976; Luer 1977a, 1977b; Luer and Almy 1979a,
Sand-tempered plain sherds have moderate to large amounts of "fine"
to "coarse" grains (Shepard 1956:118) of quartz sand and, if not weathered,
Locations of Sites that Have Yielded Information Pertinent to
LUER AND ALMY
have smooth but not polished surfaces. Most sherds are black or gray but
some sherds can be brownish, reddish, or even buff. Sherds range in
thickness from about 3 mm to about 14 mm. Vessel forms (Fig. 2) include
flattened-globular bowls, simple bowls, and pots with straight or incurved
rims. Rim forms (Fig. 2) include unthickened, thickened, and thinned,
as well as straight, inward-curving, and outward-curving. Lip forms (Fig. 2)
include rounded, flattened, thickened, and chamfered.
Sand-tempered plain pottery was made along the Gulf Coast of peninsular
Florida and in other regions of Florida for several thousand years, from
the Florida Transitional period through the period of Spanish contact.
Sand-tempered plain sherds are most numerous in midden deposits where the
pottery occurs as a secular ceramic or "village ware" but sherds also occur
in burial mounds where the pottery is in a sacred context (Sears 1967a).
Sherds of sand-tempered plain pottery often occur by the tens of thousands
in the large deep shell middens of west central Florida. The same kind of
of sherds often occur by the thousands in sand burial mounds associated
with these coastal shell middens (Bullen 1951; Bullen and Bullen 1976).
Previous references to sand-tempered plain pottery along the central
peninsular Gulf Coast as "Glades Plain" or "Glades Gritty Ware" are mis-
leading. Sand-tempered plain pottery was locally manufactured:
"following the Florida Transitional Period,...the manufacture
of undecorated gritty pottery became well established in the
Tampa Bay area and for hundreds of years was the only kind of
pottery made" (Bullen 1955:55).
The terms "Glades Plain" and "Glades Gritty Ware" were applied to sand-
tempered plain pottery found between Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor in
order to imply that the area was occupied by aborigines from the "Glades
Area" or that sand-tempered plain pottery in the area was from southern
Florida. Both Willey (1948, 1949a) and Goggin (1947, 1949) presumed that
the Manatee region, now part of the Central Peninsular Gulf Coast region
(Millanich and Fairbanks 1980), was occupied, at one or more times, by
aborigines of the "Glades Tradition." This supposed occupation occurred
either as "an expression of the tradition in the course of its movement
into the Glades Area, or a secondary backwater from the Glades Area"
(Goggin 1949:50). Although these archaeologists wrote about the supposed
homogeneous nature of aboriginal southern Florida, researchers are pre-
sently focusing on cultural differences within southern Florida (Sears
1971b, 1974; Griffin 1974; Fradkin 1976; Ehrenhard, Carr and Taylor 1978;
Milanich and Fairbanks 1980; Luer 1980). Considering this recent work, it
seems appropriate to discard altogether the terms "Glades Plain" and
"Glades Gritty Ware."
Pinellas Plain. This category is a formally defined ceramic type
(Willey 1949a:482). Pottery of this type has, by definition, a wide variety
of pastes ranging from granular to contorted and laminated. Most Pinellas
Plain sherds are gray but some are brown. The average thickness of Pinellas
Plain sherds is about 5 mm. Vessel form (Fig. 2) is typically a simple
bowl. Rim forms include slightly thickened, straight or outward-curving.
Lips are rounded or flattened, with or without notches on the exterior
on straight and
to the exterior,
pot with a
pot with a
Graphic Representations of the Terms Used in this Article to
Describe the Forms of Rims, Lips, and Vessels.
LUER AND ALMY
edge. Flat and notched lips often have finely grooved surfaces probably
made with shark tooth cutting tools (Sears 1958:4; Lazarus 1963: Fig. l:d).
Pinellas Plain pottery is indigenous to the central peninsular Gulf
Coast and is especially abundant as a secular ware at coastal shell middens
around Tampa Bay (Griffin and Bullen 1950: Tables 1, 2, 3; Bullen 1951:30;
Sears 1958:4, 1960, 1971a; Bushnell 1962:92, 1966:120; Karklins 1968:71;
and Burger 1979). In this area, the pottery also occurs in a sacred context
in burial mounds (Bullen 1951:30; Sears 1967a:66; Bullen and Bullen 1976:42).
During the Safety Harbor period the pottery became extremely common, even
to the exclusion of sand-tempered plain pottery at many Tampa Bay area sites.
However, Pinellas Plain pottery was first made around Tampa Bay in small
amounts during the Weeden Island-related period. For example, small amounts
of Pinellas Plain pottery, called "plain, contorted paste" pottery, have
been found in at least two Weeden Island-related burial mounds (Bullen
1951:38, 30; Bullen and Bullen 1976:42) and in at least two Weeden Island-
related midden deposits (Bullen 1952:28; Sears 1960:8-12). Also, only sherds
lacking notched lips have been found in the early "unquestionably Weeden
Island context(s)" (Bullen 1951:28 and 1952:24-25) whereas sherds with notched
lips occur in shallow and hence late levels of some Safety Harbor period
shell middens (Griffin and Bullen 1950: Table 1; Sears 1958:4: Bushnell
1962:92, 1966:120, 123; Goodyear n.d.:271).
St. Johns Plain and St. Johns Check Stamped. These two types were
originally defined as Biscayne Chalky Ware and Biscayne Chalky Ware Check
Stamped for southeastern Florida (Goggin 1940). Shortly thereafter, Willey
(1949a:444-446) called the types "Biscayne Plain" and "Biscayne Check
Stamped" and noted that the types were identical with St. Johns Plain and
St. Johns Check Stamped as defined by Masius (Masius n.d. in Willey
1949a:445). Willey introduced the terms St. Johns Plain and St. Johns
Check Stamped into use in "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast."
In the original definition of the plain and check stamped ware, Goggin
wrote that "typically this ware lacks sand temper, but a few shards have
what seem to be accidental inclusions of quartz sand in the paste" (1940:31).
Indeed, along the central peninsular Gulf Coast, the paste of this ware
often includes very small amounts of fine grains of quartz sand. The ware
is soft and chalk-like to the touch, often with a dark gray or black core and
buff surfaces, although sherds are found having the buff color throughout.
Surfaces of the plain sherds can be either rough or smooth. Sherds of
these St. Johns types average about 5 mm in thickness. Vessel form is often
a simple bowl. Rim forms include unthickened, straight, or outward-curving.
Lip forms include rounded or flattened.
Along the central peninsular Gulf Coast, St. Johns Plain and St. Johns
Check Stamped sherds occur in small numbers, apparently as a secular ware
at coastal shell middens and in a sacred context in burial mounds. During
the Weeden Island-related period, St. Johns Check Stamped sherds occur
rarely in both shell midden deposits (Bullen 1971:9-11; Luer 1977a:46)
and burial mounds (Bullen 1951:29-30; Bullen and Bullen 1976:41-42). During
the Safety Harbor period, however, the pottery seems to occur even more
rarely in shell midden deposits (Griffin and Bullen 1950: Table 3; Sears
1958:4; Bushnell 1962:93, 1966:120) and continues to be uncommon in burial
pounds (Willey 1949a:138,144,154,333,336; Sears 1967a:43-51). Thus,
St. Johns Check Stamped pottery occurs along the central peninsular
Gulf Coast as early as the Weeden Island-related period and, as discussed
below, was present by about A.D. 800. Carbon-14 dates from northeastern
Florida indicate that St. Johns Check Stamped pottery was introduced in
that area by about A.D. 800 (Bullen and Sleight 1960:36-37; Bullen 1965).
Previously this indication, through extrapolation, has been applied to
the central peninsular Gulf Coast (Bullen 1971; Bullen and Bullen 1976).
Belle Glade Plain. This category is a formally defined ceramic-type
(Willey 1949a:365; 1949b). Sherds contain small amounts of fine sand and
are usually mottled gray and light gray but can be black, white, or even
reddish. The sherds have a smoothed or "tooled' exterior surface which
was produced by scraping or cutting dried clay from the exterior surface
of the vessel prior to firing. The lip of many rim sherds is similarly
"tooled" on top. Belle Glade Plain sherds are often very thin and range in
thickness from 3 mm to 6 mm. Vessel form is typically a simple bowl. Rim
forms include a wide variety of forms (Porter 1951), but along the central
peninsular Gulf Coast rims display little variation and are thickened and
outward-curving. Lip forms also vary (Porter 1951), but along the central
peninsular Gulf Coast only flattened lips occur.
Belle Glade Plain pottery is abundant around Lake Okeechobee (Willey
1949b; Goggin 1951; Porter 1951) and is less abundant in the Caloosahatchee
region (Sears 1967b; Goodwin, Pearson and Fiorini 1978; Luer 1980). Sherds
are found in small numbers in a secular context at late shell middens of
the central peninsular Gulf Coast (Bullen 1951; Luer 1977a). In this area,
sherds also occur in small numbers in a sacred context in Weeden Island-
related and Saftey Harbor period burial mounds (Willey 1949a:121; Bullen
1951:30; Bullen and Bullen 1976:42). Along the central peninsular Gulf
Coast, the pottery appears to be trade ware from the Lake Okeechobee Basin
region. The Belle Glade Plain rim sherds typical of the central peninsular
Gulf Coast (a thickened and outward-curving rim with a flattened lip) are
the most abundant kind of rim sherd in higher and hence later levels at Lake
Okeechobee (Porter 1951:69-73).
Sand- and Grog-Tempered Plain. This category is not a formally defined
ceramic type. Apparently this ceramic category has been variously labeled.
For example, some sherds have been called "clay-tempered plain" (Sears
1960:7-8), "unclassified clay-tempered plain" (Karklins 1968:71,72), "sherd-
tempered plain" (Bullen 1971:9), sherds tempered with "clay" (Deming 1975:74
"sand- and 'crushed sherd'-tempered pottery" (Luer 1977b:127), and "clay- an
sand-tempered plain" (Almy n.d.). Forthwith, this ceramic category is
called sand- and grog-tempered plain.
Sand- and grog-tempered plain pottery has small amounts of fine to
coarse sand grains as well as tan to reddish brown inclusins which vary in
size from about 1 mm to 3 mm in thickness. These inclusions contain sand
and were perhaps lumps of clay or "grog". Sand- and grog-tempered plain
pottery ranges in thickness from about 4 mm to 7 mm. Most sherds are dark
gray or gray but some are brownish. Vessel forms may include simple bowls.
Rim forms include thinned or unthickened rims that are straight or slightly
inward-curving. Lip forms are rounded.
LUER AND ALMY
Sand- and grog-tempered plain pottery has been found in small numbers
in a secular context in some coastal shell middens and at an inland occupation
site of the central peninsular Gulf Coast (Sears 1960; Karklins 1968; Bullen
1971; Luer 1977b; Almy n.d.). Some sherds have been found in a sacred context
at an inland burial mound (Deming 1975). Sand- and grog-tempered plain
pottery may represent trade ware from northeastern Florida. The pottery has
oeen described as being "...like the Wilmington Plain of the Georgia coastal
area or the bulk of the clay tempered plain ware from Amelia Island" (Sears
L960:7), and as being similar to the sherd-tempered pottery of northeastern
Florida (Bullen 1971:9). Sand- and grog-tempered plain pottery was apparently
introduced to the central peninsular Gulf Coast just prior to the introduction
f St. Johns Check Stamped pottery. At one shell midden, for example, Bullen
(1971:9) found "sherd-tempered plain" sherds associated with St. Johns Check
tamped pottery or in the next lowest level. Bullen (1971:9) has noted that
'sherd-tempered pottery is known for northeast Florida at and slightly before
:he introduction of St. Johns Check Stamped containers." As indicated below,
sand- and grog-tempered pottery also occurs before the introduction of.St.
Tohns Check Stamped pottery along the central peninsular Gulf Coast.
Wakulla Check Stamped. Willey's definition (1949a:437-438) of Wakulla
'heck Stamped pottery encompasses an extremely wide range of pastes, tem-
pering, color, and check sizes. This broad definition has allowed the type
-o serve as a "catch-all" category for much of the sand-tempered check-
stamped pottery of the central peninsular Gulf Coast (Sears 1960:8,
L967a:60-61). In this area, vessel form is apparently a simple bowl. During
he Weeden Island-related and Safety Harbor periods, Wakulla Check Stamped
herds are uncommon along the central peninsular Gulf Coast, both in a
ecular context at shell middens (Sears 1960; Bullen 1971; Luer 1977a) and
n a sacred context at burial mounds (Willey 1949a:110, 121; Bullen 1951:30;
ears 1967a:43-51; Bullen and Bullen 1976:42). Much of this pottery may be
rade ware from northern Florida, but the ceramic apparently does not in-
rease in abundance through time as happens in northwestern Florida (Nance
nd Mentzer 1980; Scarry 1980).
The Ceramic Study
This study is based on all the rim sherds found in the excavations at
:he Old Oak (8-So-51) and the Roberts Bay (8-So-56) sites in Sarasota County,
Florida. The Old Oak site. lies on the shore of Sarasota Bay and is situated
about 2.5 km to the north of the Roberts Bay site (Luer 1977b: Fig. 1). The
Roberts Bay site is of the Manasota culture (Luer and Almy 1979a) and the
3ld Oak site is later and of the Weeden Island-related period of the Manasota
culture (Milanich 1980:13).
All 62 rim sherds found were in shell middens and the pottery is con-
sidered tE have been used in a secular context. This study uses the kinds,
shapes, and relative provenience of these rim sherds as well as carbon-14
ates to document the changes that occurred through time in these ceramics.
hese changes are well defined and indicate definite trends in the develop-
ent of the ceramics.
Rim Sherds from the Roberts Bay Site. Thirty-two rim sherds were ex-
cavated from a one square meter test pit measuring 2 meters in depth (Luer
i n I
z bb ee
Figure 3, Profiles of Rim Sherds from the Test Pit at the Roberts
Bay Site. Sand-tempered plain sherds: a-k, m-o, r-t, w-z, aa-cc,
ff; sand- and grog-tempered plain sherds- 1,- q, u, v, dd.
Depth below surface: a,b:185-175 cm; c:175-165 cm; d:155-lT5 cm;
e-g:145-135 cm; h:135-125 cm; i,j:125-115 cm; k:115-105 cm;
_,m:95-85 cm; n:15-75 cm; o-q:75-65 cm; r-t:55-45 cm; u-w:45-35 cm;
x,y:35-25 cm; z, aa-dd:25-15 cm; ee,ff:15-0 cm. Chamfered lips:
LUER AND ALMY
Figure 4. Profiles of Rim Sherds from the Excavation at the Old
Oak Site, Sand-temepred plain sherds:a-x; Wakulla Check Stamped:
y; St. Johns Check Stamped:z; Pinellas Plain:aa; Belle Glade Plain:
bb-dd. Layer where found:a: ground underlyingLayer I; b-d:Layer 11;
aa:Layer IV; f-h:Layer V; 1'-z, bb-dd:Layer VI.
1977b). Profiles of these 32 rim sherds are depicted in Figure 3. As is
evident from the figure, only thick-walled rim sherds (averaging 10 mm in
thickness) occur below 125 cm. Also evident is the fact that thinner
medium-walled rim sherds (averaging 8 mm in thickness) occur only above
125 cm. Figure 3 also shows that only inward-curving rim sherds occur below
125 cm. Above this depth, rim sherds are straight or only slightly in-
curved. Chamfered lips occur only on thick-walled inward-curving rim sherds
and are confined to below a depth of 125 cm. As indicated by the legend of
Figure 3 and Table 1 in Luer's report, the only kind of sherds which occur
below 95 cm are sand-tempered plain sherds; above this depth, two kinds of
pottery predominate: sand-tempered plain and sand- and grog-tempered plain.
Two carbon-14 dates have been obtained from marine shells excavated
from the test pit. One shell obtained from just below a depth of 185 cm
yielded a date of approximately 265 B.C. (2215 1 65 B.P.). This shell was
obtained from the same stratum as were thick-walled inward-curving rim
sherds with chamfered lips. The other shell was obtained from a depth of
45 55 cm and yielded a date of approximately A.D. 720 (1230 + 75 B.P.).
This shell was obtained from the same stratum that bore both sand-tempered
plain and sand- and grog-tempered plain pottery with medium-walled, straight
or only slightly inward-curving rims.
Rim Sherds from the Old Oak Site. Thirty rim sherds were excavated
from 6 pits, mostly from Layer VI (Luer 1977a). Profiles of these 30 rim
sherds are depicted in Figure 4. As is evident from the figure only medium-
walled rim sherds were found in or below Layer II near the bottom of the
shell midden. Also evident is the fact that thin-walled rim sherds
(averaging 6 mm in thickness) occur only above Layer II and were especially
abundant in the upper layer of the shell midden, Layer VI. Figure 4 also
shows that all the rim sherds from the excavation are straight or outward-
curving. However, rim sherds with lips that are thickened to the interior,
to the exterior, or both to the interior and exterior are confined to the
uppermost layer of the shell midden, Layer VI. Also, rim sherds with flat
lips are confined to Layers V and VI. As indicated by the legend of
Figure 4 and by Luer's report, sand-tempered plain pottery was found through
out the shell midden, but St. Johns Plain and Check Stamped and Belle Glade
Plain sherds were present only in the uppermost two layers, Layers V and VI.
In addition, the legend and the report indicate that Pinellas Plain and
Wakulla Check Stamped (called sand-tempered check stamped) pottery did not
have a deep provenience in the midden and were most common in upper layers.
One carbon-14 date has been obtained from a depth of 10 20 cm below
the surface and was one of 96 left-handed whelk shells of the "pile" men-
tioned in Luer's report (1977a:45). This shell was dated at A.D. 700
(1250 70 B.P.) (Beta Analytic, Inc.: Beta-1482).
Discussion of Rim Sherds from Roberts Bay and Old Oak. There is
evidence that the rim sherds from Old Oak immediately succeed the rim sherds
from the upper portion of Roberts Bay and thus the collection from Old Oak
adds to the ceramic record of the rim sherds from Roberts Bay. The carbon-1
date from near the surface of the Roberts Bay test pit, A.D. 720 1 75, is
close to the date of A.D. 700 from Old Oak. These dates suggest con-
temporaneity or near contemporaneity. The rim sherds excavated from Old Oak
LUER AND ALMY
and Roberts Bay indicate that the Old Oak midden was deposited after the
uppermost portion of the midden penetrated by the test pit at Roberts Bay.
Consistent with these two indications is the fact that the rim sherds from
the upper portion of the test pit at Roberts Bay are similar to the rim
sherds from the lower layers at Old Oak. Thus the occupation of Roberts
Bay apparently terminated as the occupation of Old Oak began. Together, the
two collections of rim sherds comprise a record of gradual ceramic change
during the interval from about 250 B.C. to about A.D. 800.
These gradual ceramic changes include (Table 1): 1) a decrease in the
thickness of rim sherds; 2) a change in rim form from inward-curving to
straight or outward-curving; 3) a change in lip form from chamfered or
rounded to flat or rounded; 4) a change in vessel form from flattened-
globular bowls or pots with a converged orifice to pots with straight rims
or simple bowls; 5) a diversification in the kinds of ceramics used from
only sand-tempered plain to predominantly sand-tempered plain pottery
augmented by small amounts of St. Johns Plain and Check Stamped, Wakulla
Check Stamped, Pinellas Plain, and Belle Glade Plain pottery; 6) the
introduction of sand- and grog-tempered plain pottery prior to the intro-
duction of St. Johns Check Stamped pottery; 7) the disappearance of sand-
and grog-tempered plain pottery by about A.D. 800; and 8) the introduction
of St. Johns Check Stamped pottery by about A.D. 800.
It should be noted that the change from thick to thin sand-tempered
plain pottery is a general trend. A few thick-walled rim sherds do occur
in the upper layers at Old Oak and at Roberts Bay, but all these rim sherds
have straight rims and rounded or flattened lips (Fig. 3 and 4). These
thick-walled rim sherds are apparently of large straight-walled pots and
are not similar to the earlier thick-walled inward-curving rims (Fig. 3)
from flattened-globular bowls or pots with a converged orifice.
The Ceramic Changes in Broader Contexts
There is already evidence that some of the ceramic changes enumerated
above occur along much of the peninsular Gulf Coast. Much evidence is well
documented for the coast from Terra Ceia to the Cape Haze peninsula (Fig. 1).
Other evidence for some similar ceramic changes exists from Burtine Island
southward to Pine Island.
Terra Ceia to Cape Haze. A change in the thickness of sand-tempered
plain potsherds has been recorded from four shell middens. Potsherds are
thick in deep levels of these middens and decrease in thickness in shallower
levels of these middens. This phenomenon was disclosed by Bullen's excava-
tions at the Abel Shell Midden at the Terra Ceia site near Tampa Bay
(1951; 1971:7), at the Sarasota County Mound in Englewood (1971:7), and
at the Cash Mound on the Cape Haze peninsula near Charlotte Harbor (Bullen
and Bullen 1956:18). The phenomenon was also disclosed by Luer's excava-
tion at Roberts Bay (1977b:127).
Carbon-14 dates indicate that thick sand-tempered plain pottery was
manufactured at shell middens of the central peninsular Gulf Coast from
about 300 B.C. to about A.D. 400. Four carbon-14 dates within a range of
ROBERTS BAY OLD OAK
185 125 cm b.s. 125 0 cm b.s. Layers V and VI
(ave. 10 mm)
(ave. 8 mm)
(ave. 6 mm)
straight or out-
rounded or flat
bowls or pots with
a converged orifice
Kinds of Ceramics:
pots with a
orifice, pots with
a straight rim, or
sand- and grog-
tempered plain, and
Belle Glade Plain
pots with a straight
rim or simple bowls
St. Johns Plain, St.
Johns Check Stamped,
Belle Glade Plain,
Table 1. Ceramic Changes at the Roberts Bay and Old
Approximately 250 B.C. to A.D. 800.
Oak Sites from
LUER AND ALMY
i few centuries have been obtained for thick sand-tempered plain pottery
in deep levels of three shell middens. At the Sarasota County Mound,
3ullen (1971:7,10,13) obtained a date of about A.D. 400 (1648 50 B.P.)
=or a level located about 1.5 m below the surface and bearing thick sand-
:empered plain pottery. At the Shell Ridge component of the Palmer site
it Osprey, Florida the Bullens (1976:24,25,50) obtained two carbon-14
plates for levels bearing thick sand-tempered plain pottery: a date of about
W00 B.C. (2250 110 B.P.) from a depth of about 4.5 m below the surface
)f the midden and a date of about A.D. 150 (1880 + 105 B.P.) from a depth
)f about 3 m below the surface of the midden. At the Roberts Bay site,
-uer (1977b:127) obtained a carbon-14 date of about 265 B.C. (2215 65 B.P.)
from a depth of about 2 meters below the surface of the midden. Thus,
:arbon-14 dates indicate that thick sand-tempered plain pottery continued
:o be manufactured until about A.D. 400. The decrease in the thickness of
.he pottery mentioned above occurred subsequently.
The rim form characteristic of this thick sand-tempered plain pottery
.s inward-curving, often with a chamfered lip (Bullen and Bullen 1976:22,24,
!7,50; Luer 1977b:127). The authors have made many surface collections, such
.s from Shaws Point, Cow Point, and the Walker and Arvida sites (Luer and
,lmy 1979a), and the Melnick site which include many thick sand-tempered
ilain rim sherds, all with inward-curving rims.
From southern Tampa Bay to Charlotte Harbor, the rim form character-
stic of the later, thin pottery is a straight or outward-curving rim,
usually with a flattened lip. An excavation of the Curiosity Creek site,
,n island occupation near Ruskin, Florida, yielded many thin sand-tempered
lain sherds in association with St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped,
akulla Check Stamped, Pinellas Plain, Belle Glade Plain, and sand- and
rog-tempered pottery (Almy n.d.). The rim sherds found were thin-walled,
ith straight or outward-curving rims, and flattened lips. Some of the
hin sand-tempered plain rim sherds had a flattened lip thickened to the
interior like some of the rim sherds from Old Oak. Surface collections
ade by the authors from Sneads Island, Indianola, and Muddy Cove 2 are
comprised of thin-walled potsherds. Rim sherds from Sneads Island include
inellas Plain and sand-tempered plain sherds with straight or outward-
urving rims with a flattened lip. At Indianola, only thin sand-tempered
lain and Belle Glade Plain sherds were found; some of the former had
utward-curving rims with a flattened lip thickened to the interior, and rim
herds of the latter pottery type were outward-curving with a flattened lip.
t Muddy Cove 2 (Clausen, Almy and Clausen 1978:41-42,55) many thin sand-
empered plain sherds were found, including 4 rim sherds with flattened lips,
n addition to sherds of St. Johns Check Stamped pottery.
Also from Terra Ceia to Cape Haze, there is evidence from three sites
hat check-stamped pottery was present along the central peninsular Gulf
Dast by about A.D. 800. Both St. Johns Check Stamped and Wakulla Check
tamped pottery occur together at the Palmer site in a level of the Palmer
arial mound that is C-14 dated at A.D. 850 (1100 105 B.P.) (Bullen and
illen 1976:41). Sherds of both of these types occur in a similar Weeden
land-related ceramic assemblage as the Prine burial mound at Terra Ceia
ullen 1951:28,30). Additionally, sherds of St. Johns Check Stamped and
kulla Check Stamped pottery appear together at the Sarasota County Mound
in a level which is early enough to contain also sand- and grog-tempered
pottery (Bullen 1971:9) which disappears by about A.D. 800.
Burtine Island to Pine Island. Little information is available about
ceramic changes elsewhere along the peninsular Gulf Coast. However,
Bullen's excavations at Burtine Island disclosed an early site, Burtine A,
which yielded sand-tempered plain rim sherds with "incurving" rims
(Bullen 1966:4) that Bullen likened to the "incurving rims...restricted to
lower and hence earlier levels" at the Shell Ridge component of the Palmer
site (Bullen and Bullen 1976:27). Just to the south of Charlotte Harbor,
the authors have noted changes in ceramics at the Pineland site. The
Post Office component of the Pineland site yielded only thick sand-tempered
plain pottery including many tens of inward-curving rim sherds, many of
which have a chamfered lip. In contrast, two other components of the
Pineland site, Brown's Mound and the Randell Mound, have yielded thin sand-
tempered plain pottery in association with St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check
Stamped, Pinellas Plain, and Belle Glade Plain pottery.
Conclusions and Remarks
Conclusions. Two collections of rim sherds excavated from carbon-14-
dated strata in two shell middens at Sarasota, Florida disclose gradual
ceramic changes from about 250 B.C. to about A.D. 800. Ceramic changes
include a decrease in the thickness of vessel walls, variations in the
forms of rims, lips and vessels, as well as a diversification in the kinds
of ceramics used. Sand-tempered plain pottery was manufactured throughout
the interval and is augmented late in the interval by small amounts of
St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, Wakulla Check Stamped, Belle
Glade Plain, and sand- and grog-tempered plain pottery, all probably trade
wares. Stratigraphic evidence and carbon-14 dates document the introduction
of sand- and grog-tempered plain pottery prior to the introduction of
St. Johns Check Stamped pottery which was introduced by about A.D. 800.
Additionally, there is evidence that at least some of these changes occur
along much of the peninsular Gulf Coast.
Remarks. Some of the material differences between the various ceramics
discussed in this article probably reflect the different uses in which the
ceramics were employed. Material characteristics such as vessel shape,
the amount and kind of temper, and the thickness of walls affect a vessel's
strength, absorbency, and resistance to thermal stress. Thus, a correlation
between function and physical characteristics is likely. Considering this,
sand-tempered large vessels with thick walls, whether of the earlier
flattened-globular type or of the later straight-walled type, probably
served as cooking vessels -
"...a less porous vessel would be relatively more watertight,
a desirable characteristic for a container. Also, a storage
vessel would be subject to less handling than a cooking pot
and so thinner walls might be acceptable" (Saffer 1980:38).
Just as significant as the material differences between the various
ceramics are the changes through time in the various ceramics. These change
are probably indications of intangible cultural changes which otherwise may
LUER AND ALMY
be obscure to the archaeologist. Could the appearance of thin-walled,
simple bowls reflect a change in subsistence activities, such as food
preparation, possibly even related to the introduction of maize? Could
the introduction of small amounts of apparently exogeneous pottery reflect
increased inter-cultural contact, perhaps through trade, warfare, or the
movement of individuals? Could the change from flattened globular bowls
to straight-walled pots reflect a change in cooking methods? Of course,
these questions remain to be answered, but the questions are valid and
Almy, Marion M.
n.d. Salvage Excavations at Curiosity Creek: An Inland,
Short-term, Multi-period, Aboriginal Occupation in
Southern Hillsborough County, Florida. MS to be
published by the Florida Division of Archives, History
and Records Management. Tallahassee.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1950a Perico Island: 1950. Florida Anthropologist, 3:40-44.
1950b Tests at the Whittaker Site, Sarasota, Florida. Florida
1951 The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida. Florida
Anthropological Society Publications, No. 3.
1952 Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough County,
Florida. Florida Geological Survey, Report of
Investigations, No. 8.
1955 Archaeology of the Tampa Bay Area. Florida Historical
1965 Florida's Prehistory. In: Florida From Indian Trail
to Space Age, edited by Carlton Tebeau, pp. 305-316.
Delray Beach: Southern Publishing Co.
1966 Burtine Island, Citrus County, Florida. Contributions
of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, No. 14.
1971 The Sarasota County Mound, Englewood, Florida. Florida
Bullen, Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen
1956 Excavations on the Cape Haze Peninsula, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social
Sciences, No. 1.
1976 The Palmer Site. Florida Anthropological Society
Publications, No. 8.
Bullen, Ripley P. and Frederick W. Sleight
1960 Archaeological Investigations of Green Mound, Florida.
The William L. Bryant Foundation, American Studies,
Report No. 2.
1979 Man in the Coastal Zone: Bishop Harbor/Terra Ceia
Island, Manatee County, Florida. Unpublished BA
thesis on file at New College of the University of
South Florida. Sarasota.
1962 The Maximo Point Site 1962. Florida Anthropologist,
1966 A Preliminary Excavation of the Narvaez Midden,
St. Petersburg, Florida. Florida Anthropologist,
Clausen, Carl J., Marion M. Almy and Cynthia S. Clausen
1978 Cultural Resource Survey of Planned Additions to
Como/Flamingo Waterway System (Section 44) Charlotte
County, Florida. Miscellaneous Project Report No. 103.
Little Salt Spring Research Facility. North Port.
An Archaeological and Historical Survey of Beker
Phosphate Corporation Property in Eastern Manatee
County. Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties Mis-
cellaneous Project Report Series No. 33. Tallahassee.
Ehrenhard, John, Robert S. Carr and Robert A. Taylor
1978 The Archaeological Survey of Big Cypress National
Preserve: Phase I. Southeast Archaeological Center.
Ellis, Garry D.
1977 A Report on the Excavations of the Payne Creek Site,
8-Hr-10, Hardee County Florida. University of South
Florida, Department of Anthropology Archaeological
Report No. 4. Tampa.
1976 The Wightman Site: A Study of Prehistoric Culture and
Environment on Sanibel Island, Lee County, Florida.
M.A. Thesis, University of Florida. Gainesville.
Goggin, John M.
1939 A Ceramic Sequence in South Florida. New Mexico
1940 The Distribution of Pottery Wares in the Glades
Archaeological Area of South Florida. New Mexico
LUER AND ALMY
1947 A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas and
Periods in Florida. American Antiquity, 13:114-127.
1949 Culture Traditions in Florida Prehistory. In: The
Florida Indian and His Neighbors, edited by J. W.
Griffin, pp. 13-44. Inter-American Center, Rollins
College. Winter Park.
1951 Archeological Notes on Lower Fisheating Creek.
Florida Anthropologist, 4:50-66.
Goodwin, Larry, Jolee Pearson, and John Fioroni
1978 Salvage Excavations at the Brothers Site, Sarasota
County, Florida. Florida Anthropologist, 31:117-127.
Goodyear, Albert C.
n.d. Political and Religious Change in the Tampa Bay
Timucua: An Ethnohistoric Reconstruction. MS on
file Department of Anthropology, University of South
Griffin, John W.
1974 Archeology and Environment in South Florida. In:
Environments of South Florida: Present and Past,
edited by P. J. Gleason, pp. 342-346. Memoir 2:
Miami Geological Society. Miami.
Griffin, John W. and Ripley P. Bullen
1950 The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida.
Florida Anthropological Society Publications, No. 2.
1968 The Palm River Midden, Hillsborough County, Florida.
Florida Anthropologist, 21:67-73.
Lazarus, William C.
1963 A Potter's Tool of the Safety Harbor Period. Florida
Anthropologist, Vol. 16:3-4.
Luer, George M.
1977a Excavations at the Old Oak Side, Sarasota, Florida.
A Late Weeden Island-Safety Harbor Period Site.
Florida Anthropologist, 30:37-55.
1977b The Roberts Bay Site, Sarasota, Florida. Florida
1980 The Aqui Esta Site at Charlotte Harbor: A Safety
Harbor-Influenced Prehistoric Aboriginal Site. Paper
presented to the 1980 Florida Anthropological Society
Meetings. Winter Park.
M., and Marion M. Almy
Three Aboriginal Shell Middens on Longboat Key,
Florida: Manasota Period Sites of Barrier Island
Exploitation. Florida Anthropologist, 32:34-45.
The Manasota Culture. Paper presented to the 1979
Florida Anthropological Society Meetings. Miami.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1972 Excavations at the Yellow Bluffs-Whitaker Mound,
Sarasota, Florida. Florida Anthropologist, 25:21-41.
Weeden Island Studies Past, Present, and Future.
Southeastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin,
Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles Fairbanks
1980 Archaeology in Florida. Academic Press.
Nance, C. Roger and E. Hollis Mentzer
1980 Changing Woodland Ceramic Functions and Technologies
on the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain. Southeastern
Archaeological Conference Bulletin No. 22:51-55.
Porter, Rita K.
An Analysis of Belle Glade Plain Rim Sherds from Two
Fisheating Creek Sites. Florida Anthropologist,
Technological Analysis of Some Sapelo Pottery:
Social and/or Functional Differences. Southeastern
Archaeological Conference Bulletin No. 22:35-38.
Scarry, John F.
1980 The Chronology of Fort Walton Development in the
Upper Apalachicola Valley, Florida. Southeastern
Archaeological Conference Bulletin No. 22:38-45.
Sears, William H.
1958 The Maximo Point Site. Florida Anthropologist, 11:1-10.
1960 The Bayshore Homes Site, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social
Sciences, No. 6.
1967a The Tierra Verde Burial Mound. Florida Anthropologist,
1967b Archaeological survey in the Cape Coral Area at the
Mouth of the Caloosahatchee River. Florida Anthropologist,
LUER AND ALMY
1971a The Weeden Island Site, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Florida Anthropologist, 24:51-60.
1971b Food Production and Village Life in Prehistoric
Southeastern United States. Archaeology, 24:322-329.
1974 Archeological Perspectives on the Prehistoric Environ-
ment in the Okeechobee Basin Savannah. In: Environ-
ments of South Florida: Present and Past, edited by
P. J. Gleason, pp. 347-351. Memoir 2: Miami Geological
Shepard, Anna O.
1956 Ceramics for the Archaeologist. Carnegie Institution
of Washington. Publication 609.
Wharton, Barry R.
1977 Salvage Investigations at the Orchard-Fenceline Site,
8-Hr-ll, Hardee County, Florida. University of South
Florida, Department of Anthropology, Archaeological
Report, No. 5. Tampa.
Willey, Gordon R.
1948 Culture Sequence for the Manatee Region of West
Florida. American Antiquity, 13:209-218.
1949a Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 113.
1949b Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology, No. 42.
Wood, Lewis J., Jr.
1976 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of the
C. F. Industries, Inc. Property in Northwestern
Hardee County, Florida. University of South Florida
Department of Anthropology, Archaeological Report
No. 2. Tampa.
George M, Luer
Marion M. Almy
FLORIDA ARCHAEOLOGY. JERALD T. MILANICH AND CHARLES H. FAIRBANKS,
ACADEMIC PRESS, NEW YORK, 1980, xvi + 290 PP., ILLUS, $19,50 (HARDBOUND).
John W. Griffin
This is the first book-length systhesis of Florida archaeology to be
published, and it should be welcomed as the milestone that it is. Written
by two of the most prominent of Florida's professional archaeologists, this
book will command wide usage and respect, and will be with us as a major
source for a number of years to come.
Florida Archaeology was written, according to the authors, to provide
an introduction and overview for both professional and avocational arch-
aeologists, as well as for interested persons who would not fall into either
of these categories. I would judge the effort to be a success; each group
(or individual) will approach the book with different eyes, but there is
something there for all.
It was certainly time for someone to write such a book. Thirty-three
years before its appearances the first article outlining a state-wide space-
time framework was published by John M. Goggin (1947). His paper, "A Pre-
liminary Definition of Archaeological Areas and Periods in Florida", set
the stage for the productive archaeological research that has occurred
between the Second World War and the present day. The major regional mono-
graphs of Willey, Rouse, and Goggin all appeared within five years after
1947 and a relatively firm basis for most parts of the state was achieved.
But that was only the beginning. More and more archaeologists, professional
and avocational, began working in" the state, excavating and screening more
dirt than ever before, and recording observations and conclusions in liter-
ally hundreds of papers and reports. Archaeologists also increasingly asked
questions that went beyond pure description or simple time-space relation-
ships. The services of zoologists, botanists, ecologists, geologists,
geomorphologists and other specialists were increasingly sought and utilized
The literature grew almost too fast and too large to permit most of us to
keep abreast of it. Milanich and Fairbanks have eased the problem; they
have evaluated and synthesized this vast literature, including the very
valuable contributions in unpublished theses and dissertations.
Obviously,some periods and areas are better known than others, creating
a certain amount of unevenness in presentation. Obviously, also, the author
of such a work are in a sense at the mercy of their colleagues from whom the
draw their basic data. Many things have to be accepted on faith alone when
engaged in this type of writing.
Rather than a catalog of the material remnants of prehistoric cultures,
the authors have attempted to "focus on the behavioral patterns that can be
derived from quantifying archaeological artifact complexes and their context
(p. xiii)." To achieve such a goal in a general book dictates a mid-level
approach between "science" and "art" which has been called "best judgement".
The best judgement approach permits the well-qualified author, or authors,
from one another and from the ceramics of the burial mounds. It is implied
:p. 97) that the concept of differing sacred and secular ceramic series was
unknown in 1951, but it was actually the subject of much discussion in the
lidwest in the decade preceding that. It apparently took the idea some time
:o diffuse to Florida.
Chapter 6 on the cultures of east and central Florida is relatively
;hort and covers the area from the pre-ceramic Mount Taylor culture to the
lawn of the historic period. The lack of intensive recent work is probably
he major factor in the meagre treatment, but the authors (p. 147) stress
hat "one is struck more by the similarities between the early and late
cultures than by their differences." It is an area of considerable stability.
Chapter 7 discusses the Alachua tradition of North-central Florida and
he Belle Glade culture of the Lake Okeechobee as two regional adaptations.
he environments, and hence the adaptations, differ. For reasons that I find
difficult to define, I find the Belle Glade section to be the least convincing
n the volume. Perhaps publication of the basic data will overcome my
The Mississippian cultures are treated in Chapter 8. The Fort Walton
culture of Willey is divided into Fort Walton east of the Apalachicola and
he Pensacola culture to the west of that river. Willey had defined a Pen-
acola series of shell-tempered pottery within his Fort Walton culture and
oted its more westerly occurrence; the present split seems desirable. It
oes however turn the Fort Walton type site into a Pensacola culture site.
There is increasing recognition that Fort Walton developed out of
eeden Island and became "Mississippianized". In turn, the Weeden Island
f the central Gulf coast under influence from the Fort Walton culture
became Safety Harbor. Mississippian ideas spread widely beyond these
cultures to all parts of Florida, but only Pensacola-Fort Walton-Safety
arbor can safely be called Mississippian,
Peoples of the historic period are the subject of Chapter 9. The mission
periods of north Florida are described, and because of the close analogy
between the ethnohistorical accounts and the entire culture sequence of South
lorida the archaeology of that area is totally covered in this place. A
final chapter gives a concise summary of the little that is known concerning
he archaeology of the Seminole.
Despite an initial impression that the organization of the book was
ndering from state-wide coverage, to single cultures, to areas, and back
d forth, hindsight shows that all of the varied cultures and areas of
orida were covered, and in as balanced a way as the data permitted.
Are there no criticisms? Indeed there are. In fact the book should
simulate discussion and argument among students of the subject for some
ime to come. But I regard that as a positive feature. Here I will concern
self only with a few minor items.
There are not many obvious errors. A slip of the typewriter (or type-
atter) has created a "tenth century" wigwam from Lawson"s eighteenth century
reservations (p. 127), and a slip of the tongue (p. 171) has created cooking
to present judgements and interpretations based upon knowledge of the
subject without "proof" at every turn. This, as I see it, is the level
upon which this book is written.
The book consists of ten chapters, the first of which is a concise
and useful history of the pursuit of archaeology in Florida, It, and the
second chapter, which provides a time-space framework, serve to introduce
the remaining eight chapters which deal with various time periods, cultural
groups, or areas within the state.
A few comparisons between the time-space framework of chapter 2 and
Goggin's 1947 pioneer attempt are of interest. Goggin divided the state
into eight areas; the present book uses nine. Comparison will show that
despite variations in boundaries and nomenclature there is no fundamental
change. New knowledge has justified modifications, and future research
will doubtless suggest further refinements.
It is in the matter of time scale that the 1947 system differs most
markedly from that of the present. Except for hints of 10,000 year old
Paleo-Indian material, everything in the pre-radiocarbon days of Goggin's
first chart was compressed into the last 2000 years. C-14 spread the time
span of known cultures and blocks of Early, Middle and Late Archaic filled
the gap between them and the Paleo-Indian. To the top of the chart have
been added the Spanish Mission periods and the Seminole. But aside from
this there are only two new names, Norwood and Manasota. It would be
erroneous to conclude from this that we have learned little in the past
three decades. The basic framework hasn't changed that much, but our
knowledge of the content of the categories certainly has. The current
view, as seen by Milanich and Fairbanks, is the subject of the remainder
of the volume.
The Paleo-Indian and Archaic peoples are discussed on a state-wide
basis, except the east Florida cultures which are in a different chapter.
Indicative of our present state of knowledge is that less than 15% of the
text is devoted to these cultures which cover 80% of the time span. But
new knowledge is accumulating rapidly. This chapter will doubtless be the
first to become obsolete.
The Deptford culture of northern Florida is the concern of the follow-
ing chapter. The distribution from the Alabama-Florida line to just below
Tampa Bay on the Gulf coast, and from the mouth of the St. Johns northward
on the Atlantic coast is explained by the close adaptation of this culture
to broad salt marshes and tidal streams, an environment which is sharply
reduced south of the boundaries mentioned above,
Chapter 5, "Weeden Island Period Cultures and Their Predecessors", is
by far the longest in the book, dealing with everything between Deptford and
the Mississippian cultures in the Gulf drainage area from Charlotte Harbor
to the Perdido River. Readers should note that Willey's Santa Rosa-Swift
Creek is now split, and that Weeden Island is retained for a North Florida
heartland and the term "Weeden Island Related" applies to cultures on the
peninsula, including the Weeden Island type site. Actually, five regional
variants are discussed. Weeden Island is presented as a ceremonial complex
which is associated with various cultures with ceramic complexes different
vessels of box turtle shells "without the carapace", when obviously the
plastron was intended. The only approach to Sunday supplement writing
Occurs on page 246 where we find, "This mystery,an apparent 1 m or more
rise in sea level relative to the land during the last 2000 years, remains
to be explained."
The interpretation of subsistence data is crucial to our understanding
Df prehistoric behavior, and it is in this area that I would like to pose
several questions. Do we have evidence that the sea turtle remains in
)eptford middens represent adult females "rolled on the beach" at nesting
Aime (p. 71)? Sea turtle remains in several South Florida middens are from
'oung or immature specimens, not egg-laying adults, suggesting a different
gathering technology, and perhaps a different seasonality as well.
In the discussion of the Cades Pond culture of North-central Florida
ve read (p. 104), "The marine foods from the coast included several species
)f sharks and the large sea turtles. In addition, mullet and several
speciess of mollusks were brought inland." Perhaps Cumbaa's thesis holds
:he answer, but I find it difficult to accept the import of substantial
amounts of spoilable marine products into the interior of the state. Are
Se dealing here with preservation? Smoked mullet? Are these truly food
A third example, which ultimately comes from Bullen's work in the
)range Period, says (p. 154), "birds taken offshore, including loon, common
aurre, and gannet, suggest use of dugouts for offshore bird-hunting." Can
rou imagine an Indian in a .frail dugout in the open ocean trying to capture
me of these active birds? It is of course unnecessary. All of these birds
ind others are frequent victims of winter storms and are found on the beaches
rounded or freshly dead. Loons have great difficulty taking off from land;
Shave in recent years seen several grounded loons which could have been
dispatched with ease. Dugouts they most probably had, but offshore bird-
Having vented the few carping remarks that occurred to me, let us turn
>nce more to the positive aspects of this work. The plates are excellent.
lost of them are of artifacts or potsherds, and you can really see the
objects The writing is for the most part clear, and considering the nature
>f the material it reads easily. It is absolutely essential that anyone
interestedd in the archaeology of Florida be well acquainted with this book.
John W. Griffin
St. Augustine, Florida
REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
Dr. Albert C. Goodyear, Archaeologist, University of South Carolina,
has requested us to run the following item:
Dr. Albert C. Goodyear CInstitute of Archaeology and Anthropology,
University of South Carolina), Mr. James L. Michie (I,A.A,) and Dr.
Barbara Purdy (University of Florida) are conducting an intensive
search and analysis of a special Early Archaic tool type known as
the Edgefield Scraper. This tool is unusual in manufacture. It
is typically made on a large thick flake usually only flaked on
the dorsal surface leaving a flat underneath face like that of a
scraper. It is side or corner notched like a Big Sandy or Bolen
point and the base and notches may be ground. So far they are only
known to occur in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, but a
similar tool known as the 'Albany Scraper' has been found and
described by Dr. Clarence Webb in Louisiana. We are searching for
other examples in the area of Alabama and Mississippi. Along the
Florida, Georgia, South Carolina area, the tools are found primarily
along the Coastal Plain and not the Piedmont. If you know of any
specimens or know of people and institutions who may have them,
please write to Dr. Albert C. Goodyear, Institute of Archaeology and
Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. 29208.
The photo below is a drawing of the tool described.
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